11. Science. 1923-1994.
This section has been divided into fifteen thematic sub-sections, which, when taken
as a whole, reflect the extraordinary breadth of Linus Pauling's scientific biography.
Boxes in the Science section typically hold manuscripts, research notes, correspondence,
figures, experimental data, non-Pauling reprints and other scientific research materials.
Generally speaking, materials have been arranged and cataloged according to research
topic. However, two sub-sections reflect the institutional architecture either supporting
or directing Pauling's work during specific periods of his life. For example, the
bulk of the collection's holdings concerning Pauling's relationship with the American
Chemical Society have been cataloged under the rubric "Scientific, Research and Grant-Funding
Institutions." A similar approach has been taken with much of Pauling's work sponsored
by the Guggenheim Foundation, Rockefeller Foundation, Ford Foundation, etc.
6. The Structure and Properties of Proteins, including Hemoglobin; The Nature of Sickle
Boxes 6.001 - 6.010 (Page: 1 - 10)
Materials re: The Structure and Properties of Proteins, 1935-1953.
Manuscript Notes: "Flavine", December 24, 1935.
Manuscript Notes: "Vanadium in Ascidia", 1935.
Research Notebook: "Proteins", Spring 1938. [Includes notes on complementarity of antigens and antibodies].
Manuscript Notes re: oxidation of muscle cells during contracation, June 1939.
Manuscript Notes re: structures of insulin, gelatin, zeni and lysine, No Date. [1930s].
Manuscript Notes re: research of William T. Astbury on structure of proteins, No Date. [1930s].
Assorted Early Notes, Materials re: the structure of proteins, 1930s - 1950s.
Calculations, Diagrams re: bond distances for the α-helix and the γ-helix, March 26, 1950.
Memorandum: Robert B. Corey to LP, re: "Dimensions of the α-β transformation in proteins",
May 25, 1950.
LP Note to Self, Calculations re: "The Structure of Proteins", [re: correlation between
structure of proteins and digestive functions] March 5, 1951.
Manuscript Notes, Calculations: "The γ-Helix", March 10, 1951.
Manuscript Notes, Calculations: "The α-Helix", March 11, 1951.
Manuscript Notes, Memoranda, Calculations, X-ray Diffraction Photos, Reprints re:
"The Lotmar-Picken X-Ray Diagram of Dried Muscle", March 1951- August 1953.
Manuscript Notes, Diagram, Reprint: "The Structure of the Silk Fibroin", July 7, 1951 - April 4, 1952.
Manuscript Notes, Calculations, X-ray Diffraction Photos: "Polyglycine", July 15, 1951 - November 30, 1952.
Materials re: The Structure and Properties of Proteins, 1951-1956.
Manuscript Notes, Memoranda, Calculations, Diagram, X-ray Diffraction Photos: "Rudall's
Photograph of Fibrin", July 21, 1951 - January 14, 1952.
Pauling and Non-Pauling Notes, Calculations re: the structure of the satonia silk
fibroin, August 2, 1951 - January 20, 1952.
Memorandum, Notes: Walter Schroeder to LP, re: "Relative rate of hydrolysis of peptide
bonds as a function of the amino acids joined by such a bond", October 30, 1951.
Memorandum: LP to Dr. Rack, re: "Calculation of radial distribution functions for
helical structures", March 3, 1952.
Memorandum: J. E. Leonard and Harry L. Yakel to LP, re: "The X-ray examination of
muscle samples, numbers 1-176 from the mussel Mytilus Edulis and the rock scallop
Rhinites", March 29, 1952.
Photographs: Crystallographic images of scallop (Mytilus edulis) muscle tissue, April 1952.
LP Note to Self re: lattice structure of silk, May 14, 1952.
Manuscript Notes: "The Antiparallel cis-trans-chain Sheet", June 2, 1952.
Manuscript Notes, Calculations, Reprint: "Compound Helixes", [re: α-Keratin, α-helix,
Interstitial Matter, Feather Keratin, and graphs concerning the α-helix] September 19-October 15, 1952.
Manuscript Notes, Calculations, Diagrams: "The 4.5 residue Helix", September 27, 1952 - October 3, 1952.
Typescript Notes re: research done on amino acids by Walter Schroeder and his group,
October 28, 1952.
Manuscript Notes: "The Cis-Trans Pleated Sheets", November 1-2, 1952.
Memorandum: Walter Schroeder to LP, re: "Amino acid analyses of gelatin and collagen,
especially their contents of proline, hydrosyproline, and glycine", November 6, 1952.
Manuscript Notes: "The Antiparallel Chart Rippled Sheet", November 12-24, 1952.
Manuscript Notes: "Silk Fibroin - reconsideration", November 14, 1952.
Photograph: X-ray diffraction pattern for feather rachis, February 1953; Manuscript Notes: "The 94.6-Å Unit of Feather Rachis", No Date. [1950s].
Manuscript Notes: "Compound helixes with 1/3 of H. bonds missing", May 17-24, 1953.
Paper molecular model of the alpha-helix from Japanese journal, Chemical Field, Vol. 8, No. 9, September 1954.
Memorandum, Data: W. A. Schroeder to LP, re: "Peptides from gelatin and collagen",
March 18, 1955.
Research Notes re: X-Ray and Electron Microscope Studies, and their Cytological Significance, of the
Recently-Discovered Muscle Proteins, Tropomyosin and Actin, by W. T. Astbury, August 12, 1956.
Pauling and Non-Pauling Notes, X-ray Diffraction Photos re: structure of Giant African
porcupine quills, No Date. [1950s].
Notes, Figures: structure of Poly Methyl L Glutamate, [LP annotation: "check with
Crick about idea"] No Date [1950s].
Assorted Materials re: the alpha-helix, 1948-1988, No Date.
Assorted Materials re: structure of proteins, 1936-1962, No Date.
Materials re: Oxypolygelatin Blood Plasma Substitute, 1946-1952. [See also Science 13.004].
Publication: Chemically Modified Proteins as Blood Substitutes - Final Report, Dan H. Campbell, Responsible Investigator, Contract OEMcmr-153, 1946. [LP annotation: "First half 1942-1944 by LP"].
Correspondence, Materials re: Oxypolygelatin blood plasma substitute, 1948-1950.
Correspondence re: Oxypolygelatin blood plasma substitute, 1951-1952.
Materials re: Conference on Blood Substitutes, National Research Council, Washington,
D.C., February 14, 1949.
Materials re: The Structure and Properties of Collagen, 1951-1955.
Manuscript Notes: "The Collagen Structure", March 3-24, 1951.
Memoranda: Walt Schroeder to Robert B. Corey re: "Present status of the study of amino
acid sequence in gelatin", December 6, 1951; Walter Schroeder to LP re: "Composition and Gelatin", March 14, 1951.
Memorandum: Robert B. Corey to Linus Pauling re: "The Structure of Collagen", January
15, 1952; Non-Pauling Typescript Notes: "The Structure of Collagen", by R. A. Pasternak
and R. B. Corey, January 11, 1952.
Manuscript Notes re: "Bessel Functions for α Helix and Collagen", March 25 - April 23, 1952.
Typescript: A Report on Collagen, April 12, 1952.
Manuscript Notes: "Collagen", [re: bond lengths in meridional reflections in collagen]
May 11, 1952.
Manuscript Notes: "Collagen", [re: calculation of interstities from collagen residues]
May 18, 1952.
Memorandum: Walt Schroeder to Linus Pauling, re: "Possibility of Fractionating Wool",
September 18, 1952.
Manuscript Notes: "Collagen", [re: problems with the old collagen structural model]
October 4-7, 1952.
Manuscript Notes: "Effect of Proline or Hydroxyproline on α Helix", October 15, 1952.
Manuscript Notes: "Collagen", [re: the compound helical structure of collagen] January 1-3, 1953.
LP Note to Self: "Third Report on Collagen", January 19, 1954.
Memorandum: R. A. Pasternak to Linus Pauling re: experiments on the chemical composition
of collagen, February 15, 1954.
Memorandum: R. A. Pasternak to Linus Pauling re: "The Average Number of Amino Acid
Residues Contained in the Unit Cell of Collagen", March 11, 1954.
Memorandum: Linus Pauling to R. B. Corey re: completing work on the structure of collagen,
September 8, 1954.
Correspondence, Reprint: K. H. Gustavson to Linus Pauling, re: the hydrothermal stability
of collagen, December 13, 1954.
Memorandum: Herbert Segall to Linus Pauling re: "The Average Number of Amino Acid
Residues Contained in the Unit Cell of Collagen", July 11, 1955.
Memorandum: Herbert Segall to Linus Pauling re: recalculation of the average number
of amino acid residues in the unit cell of collagen, July 20, 1955.
Correspondence: Alex Rich to Linus Pauling re: collagen structure, August 8, 1955.
Correspondence: Series of letters between Linus Pauling and Alex Rich, re: the structure
of trigonal polyglycine, September 7, 1955 - November 10, 1955.
Typescript: The Structure of the Collagen Group of Proteins, by G.N. Ramachandran and Gopinath Kartha, No Date. [1950s].
Research Notes: Table of values for cylindrical coordinates of collagen structures,
No Date. [1950s].
Research Notes, Calculations: Table of values for interatomic distances in collagen
molecules, No Date [1950s].
Diagram: Sketch of collagen structure at the atomic level, No Date [1950s].
Research Notes: Graphs of Bessel-function orders for collagen and other 3-chain helixes,
No Date [1950s].
Research Notes, Calculations: Evaluation of bond angles in collagen structure, No Date. [1950s].
Research Notes: List of figures diagramming collagen, No Date [1950s].
Assorted Reprints re: collagen studies, 1938, 1952-1955. [Includes LP annotations].
Non-Pauling Materials re: The Structure and Properties of Proteins, 1934-1969.
Non-Pauling Notes and Calculations: Protein structural data from Eugene L. Edwards,
Non-Pauling Typescript: Color and Structure - their Relation for the Porphyrins, by Theodore Vermeulen and Charles D. Coryell, June 19, 1941.
Non-Pauling Research Notebook and Manuscript Notes re: structure of carotenoids, by
William Shand, 1942; Correspondence re: death of William Shand, 1946, 1993.
Non-Pauling Typescript and Drawing: "A Geometrical Study of Possible Polypeptide Structures.
Compound Helical Configurations of Polypeptide Chains Composed of Three Residue Units",
Fred Helfferich, No Date [1950s]; Drawing re: Molecular Structures, by L. Benner, August 1934.
Non-Pauling Typescript, Diagrams: Notes on the Structure of α-Keratin, by Andrew Lang, August 1953.
Offprint: "Chromatographic Investigations of the Structure of Proteins", Annual Progress
Report No. 2, prepared by W. A. Schroeder and Lois M. Kay, Quartermaster Corps Contract
No. DA44-109-qm-1516, California Institute of Technology, August 1, 1954 - September 30, 1955.
Instructional Models: The Elements of Protein Synthesis, 1969.
Non-Pauling Notes, Diagrams re: the structure of proteins, [in German] No Date [1960s].
Non-Pauling Reprints re: The Structure and Properties of Proteins, 1920s - 1970s.
Non-Pauling Reprints: Publications of Alfred E. Mirsky, 1925-1950. [bound by LP].
Non-Pauling Reprints re: Structure of Proteins, 1930s-1940s.
Non-Pauling Reprints re: Structure of Proteins, 1950s.
Non-Pauling Reprints re: Structure of Proteins, 1960s-1970s.
Materials re: The Structure and Properties of Hemoglobin and the Nature of Sickle
Cell Anemia, 1935-1991.
LP Notes re: literature review of contemporary hemoglobin research, January 5 - March 11, 1935.
Manuscript Notes: "Hb & O2 equilibrium", January 29 - March 1, 1935.
Manuscript Notes: "Outline of Experiments on Hemochromogen", June 25, 1935.
Research Notes, Calculations re: the chemistry of heme proteins, 1935.
Manuscript Notes: "Reconsideration of the Hemoglobin-Oxyhemoglobin Equilibrium", November 16, 1944.
Memorandum: Walt Schroeder to LP, re: "Number of Isoleucine Residues Per Molecule
of Hemoglobin", November 21, 1950.
Memorandum, Typescript: A. C. Allison, M. Murayama, and J. Vinograd to Linus Pauling
re: "Summary of Investigations on the Properties of S Hb", September 9, 1954.
Memorandum: LP to Dr. Murayama, re: "Proposed Research on Human Hemoglobin", August 18, 1955.
Press Release: California Institute of Technology re: LP and Emile Zuckerkandl research
on the relationship of apes to humans using "hemoglobin fingerprints", September 16, 1960.
Notes: LP notes taken at the First Inter-American Conference on Congenital Defects,
Los Angeles, California, January 23, 1962.
Memorandum: LP to Paul Wolf, re: "Efforts to prevent sickle-cell anemia crises", August 25, 1972.
Typescript: The Involvement of Humoral, Metabolic, and Molecular Factors in Sickle Cell Crisis:
Proposal for Short Term Research Development Fund Support, LP Principal Investigator and Project Director, 1972. [?].
Correspondence, Report re: A Report to the 1972 California Legislature Pursuant to Senate Concurrent Resolution
no. 123 (1971) Control and Treatment of Sickle Cell Anemia, 1972-1973.
Memorandum: LP to Paul Wolf, re: "Potassium Thiocyanate and Sickle-Cell Anemia", April 4, 1973.
LP Note to Self re: blood sickling caused by anesthetics, November 1975.
Correspondence re: LP's recollections of his sickle cell anemia research, 1963, 1969, 1978.
Assorted Materials re: hemoglobin and sickle-cell anemia, 1934-1991.
Non-Pauling Materials re: The Structure and Properties of Hemoglobin and the Nature
of Sickle Cell Anemia, 1930, 1955, 1966, 1995, No Date.
Non-Pauling Typescript: Recent Reports Related to the Contents of the Harvey Lecture, by Harvey Itano, 1955 [?].
Non-Pauling Typescript: The Hemoglobins, by Harvey Itano, No Date. [1950s].
Non-Pauling Manuscript: Ferrohemoglobin Ethyl Isocyanide, Author Unknown, No Date [1950s]; Reprint: "The Magnetic Study of the Equilibrium between Ferrohemoglobin, Cyanide
Ion, and Cyanide Ferrohemoglobin," Fred Stitt and Charles D. Coryell, J. Am. Chem. Soc., vol. 61, (1930).
Non-Pauling Typescript: The Physical Chemistry of the Heme Proteins, Author Unknown, No Date [1950s].
Non-Pauling Typescript: The Solubilization of Deoxyhemoglobin S, by Edward M. Kosower, Nechama S. Kosower and Patricia C. La Course, December 1966. [Communicated by LP].
Non-Pauling Manuscript: "Ferrihemoglobin", [re: the dissociation constant of a hemoglobin
- imidazole system], Author Unknown, No Date [1960s].
Non-Pauling Article: "Sickle Cell Anemia - Basic Research Reaches the Clinic", New Eng. J. Med., vol. 332, no. 20 (May 18, 1995).
Non-Pauling Reprints re: Hemoglobin research, 1930s - 1950s.
Non-Pauling Reprints, Correspondence re: Hemoglobin research, 1930s-1940s.
Non-Pauling Reprints re: Hemoglobin research, 1950s.
Non-Pauling Reprints re: Hemoglobin research, 1960s.
Non-Pauling Reprints, Correspondence re: Hemoglobin research, 1960s.
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11-16. 6.011 - 6.016.