- Itinerary [handwritten]: St. Louis, Washington University [Filed under LP Travel: Box #1.002, Folder #2.3]
- Itinerary: 11 AM Chapel talk "Science in the Modern World"; Phi Beta Kappa-Sigma Xi banquet, evening "Molecular Medicine" [Filed under LP Travel: Box #1.002, Folder #2.3]
- Letter dictated by LP to Mr. W. H. Freeman, RE: Says that he thinks it would be fine to suggest that Sisler approaches O. K. Rice with a proposal that they collaborate. Explain that Rice has a good background and that, even though he would like to go over their manuscript if Rice and Sisler do prepare one, he can't think of anyone better than Rice for this job. [Letter from Freeman to LP, April 26, 1957] [Filed under LP Correspondence: (W. H. Freeman and Company, 1941-1959.), Box #439, Folder #439.15]
- Letter from Cleon O. Swayzee, Ford Foundation to LP RE: Let LP know that it is not possible to offer a fellowship to the person (Tom Bergeman) on whose behalf LP wrote a reference. [Filed under LP Science: (Ford Foundation, 1949-1972), Box #14.012, Folder #12.1]
- Letter from Dr. Otto Bastiansen, Institutt for Teoretisk Kjemi, to LP RE: Mentions the debate over the Albert Schweitzer appeals and the upcoming atomic tests on Christmas Island. States that the Norwegian government is interested in helping to put a stop to British testing and wanted the scientists at the Institutt to help them. Wants to know if quotes about the effects of these tests, attributed to LP, were really things that he said so that Dr. Bastiansen and his colleagues could maybe settle their debate over Schweitzer. [Letter from LP to Dr. Bastiansen June 1, 1957, Letter from Dr. Bastiansen to LP June 15, 1957] [Filed under LP Correspondence: (Bastiansen, Otto, 1951-1958, 1960-1967, 1970-1971, 1980-1982, 1986), #24.3]
- Letter from Dr. W.M. Stanley, Virus Laboratory, University of California to Dr. Hideo Murakami, cc: LP RE: Doubts the significance of his manuscripts, which he had sent to LP for review who then sent them to Dr. Stanley. Notifies him that he can not submit something for publication in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences because papers published there have to be sponsored by a member of the National Academy of Sciences. Recommends that he try submitting the manuscripts to Nature or Science. Handwritten note at bottom of page to LP explains that he feels these manuscripts do not belong in the Proceedings, also outlines the Stanleys' summer plans. [Letter from Dr, Murakami to LP February 28, 1957, Letter from LP to Dr. Stanley April 2, 1957, Letter from LP to Dr. Murakami April 2, 1957] [Filed under LP Correspondence: (M: Correspondence, 1957), #257.2]
- Letter from J. Salvinien, Faculté des Sciences de Montpellier, to LP RE: Written in French. Confirms with LP that he will give two lectures in Montpellier, one on abnormal hemoglobin and one on the structure of proteins. Hopes that LP can spend two days at the university, if his schedule permits. [Letter from LP to Salvinien April 17, 1957] [Filed under LP Speeches: 1957s.24]
- Letter from LP to Chauncey, RE: Tells him about the Appeal by American Scientists and explains that he is trying to get a copy of the Appeal signed by 20 leading scientists to send to universities so he can get more signatures. Asks for Chauncey to sign. Note on bottom: Chauncey replied to LP on the same letter saying that he is glad to be with LP on this and that the Appeal is well conceived and expressed. Apologizes for a delay in responding and expresses hope that it gets to LP on time. Handwritten note labels it as number 32. [Filed under LP Safe Contents, Drawer 3 Folder 3.004]
- Letter from LP to Frank Toole, University of New Brunswick, RE: Writes that he is pleased to be invited to give the Bryan Priestman Memorial Lectures, but that sometime during the end of October would be much more feasible for his schedule. [Letter from Toole to LP April 24, 1957, Letter from Toole to LP July 17, 1957] [Filed under LP Speeches: 1957s2.6]
- Letter from LP to M. Maurice Vigeron, RE: Tells Vigeron that the ENDEAVOR owns the copyright on the drawings that were published in LP's article and so he can not give him permission to reproduce the drawings. Informs Vigeron that a request was made to ENDEAVOR years ago for permission to reproduce the article and it was turned down by the journal. [Letter from Vigeron to LP, April 30, 1957] [Filed under LP Correspondence: (V: Correspondence, 1933-1969), Box #427, Folder #427.17]
- Letter from LP to Walter Strong. [Letter from Walter Strong to LP October 24, 1956] [Letter from Walter Strong to LP May 25, 1957] [Filed under LP Science: Box #11.088, Folder #88.13]
15 May 1957
Mr. Walter W. Strong
5801 Garford Street
Long Beach 15, California
Dear Mr. Strong:
I have been surprised to see that your letter of 24 October 1956 has remained unanswered on my desk for a long time.
I think that you may well be right in believing that improper food plays some part in causing mental illness. I do not know whether or not there is any evidence that calcium deficiency is an important cause of mental illness.
Are there any papers in the literature that support this thesis? If there are, I should be pleased to have references to them.
- Memo from Professor E.W. Hughes to LP RE: Discusses calculations of radii. Handwritten notes in top right corner outline some changes to be made to a manuscript. [Filed under LP Manuscripts of Articles: 1957a.4]
- Newspaper Clipping: "1,000,000 Deaths Predicted From Past Nuclear Blasts," Saint Louis (Missouri) Dispatch, May 15, 1957. [Filed under LP Newspaper Clippings: 1957n.14]
- Newspaper Clipping: "1,000,000 Deaths Predicted from Past Nuclear Blasts," St. Louis Post-Dispatch, May 15, 1957. [Filed under LP Biographical: (LP Scrapbooks, 1956-1960), Box #6.007, Folder #7.32]
- Note from Professor Otto Hahn RE: Remembers a deceased colleague as a good friend and good person that will not be forgotten. [Filed under LP Correspondence: (B: Correspondence, 1957), #38.3]
- Program and Menu: Washington University, Meeting of Phi Beta Kappa and Sigma Xi, May 15, 1957. [Filed under LP Biographical: (LP Scrapbooks, 1956-1960), Box #6.007, Folder #7.35]
- Program from the Chapter of Phi Beta Kappa and Sigma Xi at Washington University, in which LP makes a speech entitled, "Molecular Medicine" [Filed under LP Speeches: 1957s.19]
- Program from the Eliot Honors Day assembly at Washington University, in which LP makes a speech entitled, "Science and the Modern World" [Filed under LP Speeches: 1957s.19]
- Speech entitled "Science in the Modern World" for Washington University [Filed under LP Speeches: 1957s.19]
SCIENCE IN THE MODERN WORLD
By Linus Pauling
Chapel, Washington University, St. Louis, 15 May 1957
The modern world has been determined in its nature very largely by the progress of science during the past two centuries. Never again will man live in the world of Queen Victoria, of George Washington, of William Shakespeare. Science has become such an important part of the world, affecting all human activities, including politics and international relations, that it is desirable for everybody to have some understanding of science.
As more and more has been learned about the nature of the world, it has been found that the world is indeed a marvelous, astounding structure - far more marvelous, far more wonderful than it had been possible for anyone to imagine. One reason that it is difficult to make discoveries about the nature of the world is that man's imagination is limited. For example, it is evident that the discovery that the neutrino cannot be described as a small round particle, spinning on its axis, but that rather it has properties that correspond to its description as a right-handed propeller, that twists in a helical way as it moves along its path, was made only when two theoretical physicists had the originality and boldness to imagine this possibility.
There has been extremely rapid progress during the past fifty years in the development of the physical sciences. I believe that biology is now entering upon its period of great progress - that the next fifty years will be the golden age of biology, during which a truly penetrating understanding of the nature of life, the structure of the human body and of other living organisms, will be obtained.
The discoveries that have been made during the past few years about abnormal molecules of hemoglobin in relation to disease may serve to illustrate the possibilities for biology and medicine of progress in the understanding of the molecular structure of the human body. The relation of the abnormal hemoglobins to malaria and their significance to the problem of the rate of evolution of man illustrate the extent to which an understanding of the molecular properties of the constituents of the human body can be applied to various fields of knowledge.
One consequence that can be expected of medical progress, especially the possibility of impairing the afflictions of individuals who are born seriously defective because of their inheritance of bad genes, is the danger that the pool of human germ plasm will become impaired, through an increase in the steady-state concentration of the bad genes, resulting from their continued new formation by mutation and a decrease in their destruction by the death of defective individuals. This problem is rendered more serious by the fact that artificial radiation can be expected to increase significantly the rate of new formation of bad genes by mutation. This problem, which will have to be faced sooner or later, is a serious one, and it is difficult to formulate a satisfactory solution to it, which could provide a protection for the human race against genetic deterioration and at the same time would not do injustice to individual human beings.
This problem illustrates the situation of the scientist in the modern world. The scientist has the background of information and experience in judgment of complex scientific problems that may permit him to formulate opinions about this question and similar ones that, when expressed openly, could be of value to his fellow citizens. The scientist has the duty to make his contribution to the solution of the great world problems that in considerable part result from scientific discovery, as well as to carry on his own professional work.