- Letter from Barclays Bank Ltd. To LP RE: State that it is a pleasure to reopen his account. Ask for his present appointment, since their 1948 records are likely out of date. [Letter from LP to Barclays March 11, 1960] [Filed under LP Biographical: Assorted Bank Statements and Canceled checks, 1937-1977: Box #4.038, Folder #38.2]
- Letter from Charles C. Thomas, Publisher, to LP. RE: Asks permission to use illustrations from Endeavor. [Letter from LP March 25, 1960] [Filed under LP Correspondence: (T: Correspondence, 1960) #411.5]
- Letter from Curtis D. Benster, to LP. RE: Reminds him of their discussion regarding a position for an English-Russian translator. [Filed under LP Correspondence: (B: Correspondence, 1958-1961), Box # 39, Folder #39.3]
- Letter from Isao Takahashi, to LP and AHP. RE: Thanks him for the book No More War!. Is working under Dr. Schweitzer. Sends his greetings to Dr. Catchpool. [Filed under LP Correspondence: (T: Correspondence, 1960) #411.5]
- Letter from Joan R. Harris, LP's secretary, to James E. Moran RE: Informs Moran that an effort with the National Science Foundation is being made to determine if the films, three fifty minute films on valence and molecular structure, can be purchased. [Letter from Moran to University of California December 18, 1959] [Filed under LP Science: (National Science Foundation: Grants, Exhibits, 1954-1964), Box #14.030, Folder #30.5]
- Letter from Joan R. Harris, Secretary to LP, to Franklin Pan. RE: Informs him that he can obtain the answer sheet by writing to the publisher. [Filed under LP Correspondence: (P: Correspondence, 1960) #314.1]
- Letter from Joan R. Harris, Secretary to LP, to Gail M. Rowell. RE: Encloses an article by LP on carbon-14 and a leaflet about his book No More War!. [Letter from Rowel February 27, 1960] [Filed under LP Correspondence: (R: Correspondence, 1960) #342.1]
- Letter from Joan R. Harris, Secretary to LP, to John Gaines. RE: Informs him that LP is unable to meet with his group of seniors. [Filed under LP Correspondence: (G: Correspondence, 1960) Box # 141 Folder #141.5]
- Letter from Joan R. Harris, Secretary to LP, to Robert H. Carleton, National Science Teachers Association. RE: Requests that he make a reservation for him at the Muehlebach Hotel for March 30. Informs him to LP's travel plans. [Letter from Carleton March 7, 1960] [Filed under LP Speeches: (Speeches by LP, 1960) Box # 1960s, Folder #1960s.12]
- Letter from LP to Dr. Vitali Negri, Freethinkers of Southern California. RE: Comments on his lectures. [Letter from Negri February 19, 1960] [Filed under LP Correspondence: (F: Correspondence, 1960) Box # 129 Folder # 129.4]
- Letter from LP to E. M. Shooter, University College London, RE: Gives Shooter permission to use drawings of α-helixes published in some of LP and Professor Corey's papers. [Letter from E. Shooter to LP August 12, 1959] [Filed under LP Correspondence: (S: Correspondence, 1959), # 380.3]
- Letter from LP to Gordon S. Robinson. RE: Thanks her for the invitation. Declines it because they will be out of town. [Filed under LP Correspondence: (B: Correspondence, 1958-1961), Box # 39, Folder #39.3]
- Letter from LP to John H. Denton, University of Arizona. RE: Apologizes for the delay in answering his letter. Cannot accept another invitation to lecture. [Letter from Denton February 17, 1960] [Filed under LP Correspondence: (D: Correspondence, 1960) Box # 99 Folder # 99.1]
- Letter from LP to Lawrence Bragg. RE: Encloses copies of two letters he has sent to the Nobel Committee for Chemistry and Physics. Doubts it is time for a Nobel for the structure of DNA. [Filed under LP Correspondence: (Nobel Prize Nominations, 1960) #280.4]
- Letter from LP to Leon Svirsky, Science Editor, Basic Books, Inc.. RE: Looks forward to seeing him when he comes to visit. Informs him that he will be out of town for a couple days. [Filed under LP Correspondence: (B: Correspondence, 1958-1961), Box # 39, Folder #39.3]
- Letter from LP to Mandel A. Terman. RE: Appreciates his invitation. Cannot comment on his picture with out seeing it. [Letter from Terman March 8, 1960] [Filed under LP Correspondence: (T: Correspondence, 1960) #411.5]
- Letter from LP to Nicholas P. Christy, Columbia University, RE: Informs that it is unlikely that he will be able to speak at Christy's Combined Staff Clinic. [Letters from Christy February 8, 1960, March 22, 1960] [Filed under LP Correspondence: (C: Correspondence, 1960), Box # 75, Folder # 75.3]
- Letter from LP to Nobel Committee for Chemistry. [Filed under LP Science: (Nucleic Acid Papers, 1951-1963), Box #9.001, Folder #1.47]
15 March 1960
The Nobel Committee for Chemistry
Stockholm 50, SWEDEN
Professor Sir Lawrence Bragg has sent me a copy of his nomination of J. D. Watson, F. H. C. Crick, and M. H. F. Wilkins for the Nobel Prize for Chemistry for 1960, for their work on the structure of deoxyribonucleic acid, and has suggested that I express my opinion.
The hydrogen-bonded double-helix for DNA proposed by Watson and Crick has had a very great influence on the thinking of geneticists and other biologists, and I believe that their idea is a valuable one. It is my opinion that there is little doubt that nucleic acid molecules have a complementary structure resembling in its general nature that proposed by Watson and Crick, and that the complementariness is determined by the formation of hydrogen bonds. The detailed nature of the structure of DNA is, I think, still uncertain to some extent, however, whereas that of polypeptide chains in proteins is now certain.
The first detailed structure to be proposed for the nucleic acids was a triple-helix structure, with hydrogen bonds between the phosphate groups, rather than between the nitrogen bases. This structure was proposed by Professor Robert B. Corey and me in Proceedings of the U. S. National Academy of Sciences 39, 84-87 (1953). Watson and Crick had a manuscript of this paper before publication, and may to some extent have been stimulated by this proposal to formulate their double-helix structure, as well as by the x-ray photographs of Wilkins.
The detailed structure proposed by Watson and Crick has been revised somewhat by Wilkins. Moreover, Robert B. Corey and I have pointed out that it is likely that cytosine and guanine form three hydrogen bonds, rather than two, as proposed by Watson and Crick (L. Pauling and R. B. Corey, Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 65, 164-181 (1956). Also, Dr. K. Hoogsteen, an associate of Professor Robert B. Corey, has determined the structure of a simple compound of 1-methylthymine and 9-methyladenine, and has found that the hydrogen bonding is different from that assumed by Watson and Crick for the corresponding residues in the nucleic acids, which suggests the possibility that a further change in the structure of nucleic acid may be found necessary. I enclose reprints of the two papers by Professor Corey and me mentioned above and also of the paper by Dr. Hoogsteen.
It is my opinion that the present knowledge of the structure of polypeptide chains in proteins is such as to justify the award of a Nobel Prize in this field in the near future, to Robert B. Corey for his fundamental investigations of the detailed molecular structure of amino acids and the polypeptide chains of proteins or possibly divided between him and Kendrew and Perutz. On the other hand, I think that it might well be premature to make an award of a Prize to Watson and Crick, because of existing uncertainty about the detailed structure of nucleic acid. I myself feel that it is likely that the general nature of the Watson-Crick structure is correct, but that there is doubt about details.
With respect to Wilkins, I may say that I recognize his virtuosity in having grown better fibers of DNA than any that had been grown before and in having obtained x-ray photographs than were available before, but I doubt that this works represents a sufficient contribution to chemistry to permit him to be included among recipients of a Nobel Prize.
Wile [sic] I am discussing these matters, I should like to say that I regret that both W. M. Latimer and W. H. Rodebush are now dead, and that the recognition of the great importance of the hydrogen bond in molecules of living organisms (proteins and nucleic acids) as well as in simple substances was delayed until recently. Their discovery of the hydrogen bond, announced in the Journal of the American Chemical Society 42, 1419 (1920), can now be seen to be justified as the basis for the award of a Nobel Prize in Chemistry to them.
cc: Nobel Committee for Physics, Nobel Committee for Chemistry, Professor Sir Lawrence Bragg
- Letter from LP to Nobel Committee for Physics RE: LP expresses his opinion on Bragg's nomination of Perutz, Kendrew, and Hodgkin for the Nobel Prize for Physics for 1960. [Filed under LP Science: (Nucleic Acid Papers, 1951-1963), Box #9.001, Folder #1.47]
- Letter from LP to Professor Carl O. Dunbar, Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale University RE: Says he is glad to comment on his letter of last July, says the drawings are not closely related to his in General Chemistry so he doesn't think a credit line is needed, says Mr. Freeman would give permission for the four structures at top if needed and says the others are structural formulas so there is no need. Says that he doesn't like the four drawings at the top of the sheet as they seem to be very poor, explains what he finds wrong with them, and suggests a different way of having them redrawn. [Letters from Dunbar to LP July 30, 1959, March 22, 1959] [Filed under LP Correspondence: (D: Correspondence, 1959), #98.24]
- Letter from LP to Richard W. Lambourne, Treasurer of the Ford Foundation RE: LP requests for the fourth year payment (of the 5-year, $450,000 grant) to be made. LP requests $89,980 and attaches and explains the budget sheet for July 1, 1959-June 30, 1960. Says that he is pleased with the progress they have made, however, suffered when Dr. Richard W. Lippman died in December of 1959. [Filed under LP Science: (Orthomolecular Medicine and Mental Health: Materials re: Ford Foundation grants for the study of mental disorders, 1955-1966), Box #11.088, Folder #88.9]
- Letter from LP to The Nobel Committee for Chemistry. RE: Comments on the nomination by Bragg. Thinks that Corey should get the prize. [Filed under LP Correspondence: (Nobel Prize Nominations, 1960) #280.4]
- Letter from LP to The Nobel Committee for Physics. RE: Discusses the nominations for the Nobel Prize in Physics. [Filed under LP Correspondence: (Nobel Prize Nominations, 1960) #280.4]
- Letter from LP to William H. Freeman, W. H. Freeman & Co., RE: Inquires about buying stock in W. H. Freeman & Co. because of possible lack of faith by stockholders in the company. Discusses his reasons for not attempting to get the revised edition of College Chemistry ready by September 1960. [Filed under LP Books 1955b.3]
- Letter from LP to William Lawrence Bragg RE: Tells Bragg that he has sent letters to both the Nobel Committee for Chemistry and Physics with his opinions on Bragg's nominations for the Nobel Prizes. [Letter from Bragg to LP January 9, 1960, Letter from Bragg to LP March 22, 1960] [Filed under LP Science: (Nucleic Acid Papers, 1951-1963), Box #9.001, Folder #1.47]
- Letter from Linda Hopkins, Secretary to LP, to Mrs. Thomas Kimball. RE: Informs her that LP is unable to speak to her high school because he has a busy schedule. [Memo from Hopkins March 7, 1960] [Filed under LP Correspondence: (K: Correspondence, 1960) #201.4]
- Letter from Mrs. Vernon Hammond, Bryn Mawr College Alumnae Bulletin, to Joan Harris, Secretary to LP, RE: Says she has changed LP's article in accordance with his suggestions and has ordered 500 copies. [Letters from Harris to Hammond March 8, 1960, August 20, 1960] [Filed under LP Manuscripts of Articles: 1959a2.6]
- Letter from Per-Olov Lowdin, University of Florida, to LP. RE: Asks for his opinion of Darwin W. Smith. [Filed under LP Correspondence: (S: Correspondence, 1960) #381.1]
- Letter from Russell B. Long, United States Senate, to LP. RE: Is concerned about the danger to the nation caused by the lag in research and development. Would like his views on the subject. [Filed under LP Correspondence: (L: Correspondence, 1960) # 231.6]
- Letter from T.U. Wu to J.J. Stilwell RE: Informs of enclosed outlines of the two research programs, one for the theoretical and the other for the experimental investigations on the general problem of ventilated flows. States that this research is important for academic interest and also of value in practical application in the field of naval hydrodynamics. [Filed under LP Biographical:(California Institute of Technology: Committee on Sponsored Research, 1958-1960), Box# 1.025, Folder# 25.4]
- Letter from Temple Wanamaker, Department of State, Washington to AHP RE: Informs AHP that her recent communication to the President was sent to the Department of State so that interested offices in the Department could see it as well. Sends the enclosed material that for AHP's interest. [Filed under AHP: AHP: General Peace, 1945-1960: Box #4.009, Folder #9.20].
- Letter from William Woods to LP, RE: Some friends of Woods' have a daughter with Leukemia and are asking LP for any advice on possible treatments that might help to prolong her life. Also, Woods is asking LP about any information concerning the amount of Strontium-90 in milk in the Orange County area. [LP's reply March 17, 1960] [Filed under LP Peace: (Materials re: Strontium-90, 1960), Box #7.013, Folder #13.19]
- Memorandum from LP to Bill Scheulke. RE: Requests a revision of the big model of the alpha helix and the carrying case for it. [Filed under LP Correspondence, (S: Correspondence, 1960) #381.1]