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- "An instrument for determining the partial pressure of oxygen in a gas." J. Am. Chem. Soc. 68 (May 1946): 795-798. Written by: Linus Pauling, Reuben E. Wood, and J. H. Sturdivant. [Filed under: LP Publications, 1946p.6]
- Calculations RE: Diffraction data for NaCd2, May 1946. [Filed under: RNB 23R: Addendum Folder 2]
- Excerpt from a letter from J. F. Golay RE: Makes many observations on the current state of daily life in England, and how these issues may influence to abilities of Rhodes Scholars. [Filed under LP Correspondence: #339.5]
- Notes RE: Calculations related to a film made by Jordan. [Filed under: RNB 23R: Addendum Folder 2]
- Letter from E. U. Condon, Director, National Bureau of Standards, to LP RE: Discusses new standard samples of hydrocarbons that are now available. [Filed under LP Correspondence: Box #283.4, file:(National Bureau of Standards)]
- Entry in Calendar: “Arrived home. 11-15 am Chief Pet Show” [Filed under LP's Daily Calendar of Events, 1946, 1958-1966, 1968-1970, 1973-1979: Box #5.012, Folder 12.1]
- Letter from Dr. H. D. Piersma, Director, Human Biological Division, Lederle Laboratories, to LP RE: Sends and inventory of their Antipneumococcus Sera and Pneumococcus Polysaccharide. (Notes by LP re: discuss orders for serum. [Filed under LP Correspondence: Box #230.12, file:(L: Correspondence, 1946)]
- Letter from LP to Dr. Paul Emmett, Mellon Institute. (Note in right margin: “See Young + Taylor Me: Position for PH Emmett”) [Letter from Emmett to LP April 17, 1946] [Filed under LP Correspondence: Box #109.1, file:(Emmett, Paul, 1937-1959, 1977-1982)]
May 3, 1946
Dr. Paul H. Emmett
Mellon Institute of Industrial Research
4400 Fifth Avenue
On returning from a trip East, which lasted for three weeks, I have found your letter, which I hasten to answer.
I thank you very much for your invitation to me to stay with you. I am coming on this trip alone — Ava Helen went along with me on the last trip to Philadelphia, Washington, and New York, and is staying at home this time. Moreover, I have got so behind in my work that I am making the visit to Pittsburgh as short as possible, and am staying only one night, at some hotel, as arranged by the Westinghouse Company. I have also signed up for two luncheons and two dinners, on Thursday and Friday, and so I shall not be able to visit you and Lela.
Ava Helen and I are hoping that when we come East together sometime we can stop off for a visit with you in Pittsburgh. I hope that on this trip I shall get to talk with you a little while — without doubt you will be attending some of the meetings.
Give our regards to Lela.
- Minutes from Executive Committee Conference. [Filed under LP Biographical: Academia, California Institute of Technology: Assorted Financial Materials: 1945-1965: Box #1.032, Folder 32.1]
- Writes cheque to “Pasadena Star News” $1.26 [LP Biographical: Business and Financial 4.073, folder 73.4]
- writes cheque to "Pasadena Star News," $1.26. [Filed under LP Biographical: Business and Finance, Box 4.018, Folder 18.1]
- Biographical information about LP. Information submitted for the International Who's Who for 1947. [Filed under Biographical Updates and Publications Bibliographies, 1940-1991: Box #5.005, Folder 5.2]
- Letter from LP to Dr. H.C. Spruth to LP. [Filed under: LP Speeches, 1946s.8]
May 6, 1946
Dr. H. C. Spruth
Bioassay Laboratories Abbott Laboratories
North Chicago, Illinois
Dear Dr. Spruth:
I trust that the six additional glossy prints of my photograph sent by my secretary reached you safely, and also that you received my telegram, giving the subject of my talk as "Modern Structural Chemistry". I think that I can prepare under this title a talk which will be of interest to a general audience as well as to chemists familiar with the field.
I am planning to arrive in Chicago at 1:30 P.M. on Wednesday, May 16, and to remain until that evening. If it would be convenient for you and Dr. Marschner to see me at that time, please let me know. I shall arrive on the Santa Fe Chief, at the Dearborn Station.
- Letter from LP to Prof. Arthur B. Lamb, Editor, JACS, RE: Sends comments on the manuscript “The Nature of the Bonding in Derivatives of Ferriheme” by Erdman and Corwin, suggesting that the title be changed to “Spectroscopic Studies of Ferric Mesoporphyrin Complexes” and that considerable revision be undertaken. Suggests Dr. Coryell should be consulted for his opinion. [Letters from Corwin to Lamb July 25, 1946, from Lamb to LP July 27, 1946] [Filed under LP Correspondence: Box #191.1, file:(Journal of the American Chemical Society)]
- APS Newsletter, vol. 1, no. 9, Published by the Association of Pasadena Scientists. Gives information on meeting of May 7, summary of state department report, comments, meeting of April 23, steering committee meeting, and reading list. [Filed under LP Peace: Box 4.009, Folder 9.2]
- Letter from WN Lacey and B. H. Sage to LP RE: Discusses the new accounting procedures that will result in less money for the Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering. Recommends options for the fiscal year 1946-47. [Filed under LP Biographical: Academia, California Institute of Technology: Assorted Financial Materials: 1945-1965: Box #1.032, Folder 32.1]
- Entry in Calendar: “Dinner at home. Sterling Miller and his wife” [Filed under LP's Daily Calendar of Events, 1946, 1958-1966, 1968-1970, 1973-1979: Box #5.012, Folder 12.1]
- Entry in Calendar: “Dinner Zechmeister. Huntington Hotel” [Filed under LP's Daily Calendar of Events, 1946, 1958-1966, 1968-1970, 1973-1979: Box #5.012, Folder 12.1]
- Letter from John G. Kirkwood, Cornell University Department of Chemistry, to LP. Tells LP that he is flattered that LP wants him to join the staff at CIT, but will require time to make the decision. Offers to help LP in securing support for his program. LP Safe: Drawer 3, Folder 3.019
- Letter from Kenneth B. Demaree, Editor, College Department, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., to LP RE: Writes that Herold Hicks, the new Pacific Coast representative, was disappointed to find LP out of the office when he visited Cal Tech last month. Requests information on LP's plans for “General Chemistry.” [Filed under LP Correspondence: Box #253.2, file:(McGraw-Hill 1945-1946)]
- Writes cheque to "Santa Fe RR," $239.49. [Filed under LP Biographical: Business and Finance, Box 4.018, Folder 18.1]
- Entry in Calendar: “Dinner DuMond-6.45” [Filed under LP's Daily Calendar of Events, 1946, 1958-1966, 1968-1970, 1973-1979: Box #5.012, Folder 12.1]
- Letter from LP to Mr. Jo Davidson, National Chairman, ICCASP. Accepts election to the National Board of Directors of the Independent Citizens' Committee of the Arts, Sciences and Professions. [Letter from Davidson to LP, April 22, 1946].
- Entry in Calendar: “Paddy leaves for Pittsburgh. Crelin - party at Niemann's” [Filed under LP's Daily Calendar of Events, 1946, 1958-1966, 1968-1970, 1973-1979: Box #5.012, Folder 12.1]
- Letter from LP to Dr. Niels Engel RE: Gives Engel permission to carry out post-doctorate research at Cal Tech. Informs him that the labs have more x-ray than metallurgy equipment. Suggests that he might also consider the Institute of Metals at the University of Chicago or School of Mines at Berkeley. [Letter Engel to LP April 9, 1946] [Filed under LP Correspondence: Box #112.12, file:(E: Correspondence, 1946)]
- Writes cheque to "Alpha Chi Sigma," $5.00. [Filed under LP Biographical: Business and Finance, Box 4.018, Folder 18.1]
- Entry in Calendar: “Hiccasp. meeting 8 Ernst Pascal” [Filed under LP's Daily Calendar of Events, 1946, 1958-1966, 1968-1970, 1973-1979: Box #5.012, Folder 12.1]
- Letter from F. L. Kauffman to LP RE: Informs LP that he has taken the liberty of reserving a room for he and AHP at the Drake Hotel for their stay in Chicago. [Filed under: LP Speeches, 1946s.8]
- Letter from LP to Mr. Douglas Veale, University Registry, Oxford RE: Accepts the appointment as George Eastman Visiting Professor at University of Oxford for the academic year 1947-1948. [Letter from Veale to LP March 26, 1946, May 20, 1946] [Filed under LP Correspondence: Box #299.8, File: (Oxford University, [re: Eastman professorship and residency in Oxford] 1946-1948)]
- Letter from LP to W.H. Freeman, MacMillan Company, RE: LP has looked over the proposed contracts and finds them acceptable, though he submits for Freeman's review a couple of changes he feels ought to be made. He tells Freeman that he looks forward to their continuing association. [Filed under LP Manuscripts of Books, 1947b6.1]
- Writes cheque to “Adohr” $22.22 [LP Biographical: Business and Financial 4.073, folder 73.4]
- Writes cheque to “Ans. Ama. Atish?” $20.50 [LP Biographical: Business and Financial 4.073, folder 73.4]
- Writes cheque to “Athenaeum. Dues, etc” $13.19 [LP Biographical: Business and Financial 4.073, folder 73.4]
- Writes cheque to “Berry Hill Farms” $3.95 [LP Biographical: Business and Financial 4.073, folder 73.4]
- Writes cheque to “Coleman Chamber Concerts Deposit” $2.00 [LP Biographical: Business and Financial 4.073, folder 73.4]
- Writes cheque to “Dr. Blaisdell. Operation for Paddy” $80.00 [LP Biographical: Business and Financial 4.073, folder 73.4]
- Writes cheque to “Dr. McMillan. Vaccinations” $10.00 [LP Biographical: Business and Financial 4.073, folder 73.4]
- Writes cheque to “Dr. Rosenau. Paddy's examination” $10.00 [LP Biographical: Business and Financial 4.073, folder 73.4]
- Writes cheque to “Dr. Spencer. Atkinson” $50.00 [LP Biographical: Business and Financial 4.073, folder 73.4]
- Writes cheque to “Federated Missions of Pasadena K. Farming memorial Fund” $5.00 [LP Biographical: Business and Financial 4.073, folder 73.4]
- Writes cheque to “George Jansen” $7.78 [LP Biographical: Business and Financial 4.073, folder 73.4]
- Writes cheque to “Harlan G. Lunch. Fix zephyr” $22.80 [LP Biographical: Business and Financial 4.073, folder 73.4]
- Writes cheque to “JC Nash. Shoes” $9.17 [LP Biographical: Business and Financial 4.073, folder 73.4]
- Writes cheque to “Mira Loma Mutual H2O. Co” $7.69 [LP Biographical: Business and Financial 4.073, folder 73.4]
- Writes cheque to “Polytechnic. Crellie's tuition” $134.00 [LP Biographical: Business and Financial 4.073, folder 73.4]
- Writes cheque to “Roy Edwards” $14.75 [LP Biographical: Business and Financial 4.073, folder 73.4]
- Writes cheque to “S. Calif. Edison Co” $24.80 [LP Biographical: Business and Financial 4.073, folder 73.4]
- Writes cheque to “S. Calif. Tel. Co” $8.40 [LP Biographical: Business and Financial 4.073, folder 73.4]
- Writes cheque to “Taka & Isono” $1.75 [LP Biographical: Business and Financial 4.073, folder 73.4]
- Writes cheque to “Union Oil Co. Gas” $5.16 [LP Biographical: Business and Financial 4.073, folder 73.4]
- Letter from LP to Dr. A. K. Parpart RE: LP apologizes for the delay in answering his letter but goes on to say that he would like very much to attend and take part of the conference on “The Chemistry and Physiology of Growth.” He will do his best to arrange his schedule around it and asks if he can delay his decision for awhile. [Filed under: LP Speeches, 1946s.10]
- Memo from LP to Dr. Don Clark RE: Inquires if Clark's department would be willing to pay half a $200 lecture fee to have Dr. William Hume-Rothery come and give three lectures at Cal Tech. [Memo from Clark to LP May 23, 1946] [Filed under LP Correspondence: Box #163.4, file:(Hume-Rothery, William)]
- Entry in Calendar: “Pittsburgh” [Filed under LP's Daily Calendar of Events, 1946, 1958-1966, 1968-1970, 1973-1979: Box #5.012, Folder 12.1]
- Letter from LP to C.R. Heck, RE: LP is close to making a decision about his chemistry text. He isn't certain yet, but thinks he will probably complete the manuscript in the coming months with the hope of publishing it next spring. [Filed under LP Manuscripts of Books, 1947b5.12]
- Letter from LP to Ralph Spitzer RE: States he is glad to learn he accepted the job at Oregon State. Says there are probably troubles regarding research support but that should improve. [Filed under LP Biographical: Political Issues: Ralph Spitzer: Academic Freedom and Passport Difficulties, 1942-1994: Box #2.034, Folder 34.1]
- Memorandum from W. R. Scott, to All OSRD Official Investigators. RE: Calls their attention to the OSRD Administrative Circular 17.03 regarding the disposition of OSRD records. Informs them that penalties are severe. [Filed under LP Science: Assorted LP War Work, 1940-1946: Box #13.006 Folder #6.1]
- Program: “Roster of Guests” The George Westinghouse Centennial Forum, Pittsburgh Pa, May 16-18, 1946. [Filed under LP Scrapbooks, 1946-1950: Box #6.005, Folder 5.6]
- Manuscript, Typescript, Program, Notes: Molecular Architecture and Biological Reactions, The George Westinghouse Centennial Forum, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. [Filed under: LP Speeches, 1946s.7]
Molecular Architecture and Biological Reactions
By Linus Pauling
(To be presented May 17, 1946 at the Westinghouse Centennial Celebration)
There are two subjects that I am deeply interested in -- structure, the detailed nature of molecules, crystals, cells, described in terms of their constituent atoms, with interatomic distances to be within a hundredth of an Angstrom unit, an interest that began in my youth and has received most of my attention until recent years; and the basis of the physiological activity of substances, an interest that is more recent but just as keen: and it is with a deep feeling of satisfaction that I have reached the firm conclusion in recent years that these two fields are most intimately related. Why have we still so little understanding of the structural basis of the physiological activity of chemical substances, despite the interest and effort of many able physiologists and chemists during recent decades? I believe that it is because the problem has been examined, in the main, from one point of view only -- not the wrong point of view, but one which, unsided, gives a vista insufficient to reveal its true complex nature. This point of view is that which surveys the chemical reactivity of molecules -- their tendency to break their chemical bonds, the very strong bonds between atoms, and to form new chemical bonds; and the other point of view which is needed is that which directs the mind's eye to the detailed size and shape of the molecules and the nature of the weak interactions of molecules with other molecules, in particular with the macromolecules and macromolecular stromatic structures which characterize the living organism. Until very recently physiologists and pharmacologists have barely thought of this aspect of their great problem -- and I am convinced that once they begin to use this new idea seriously a period of the greatest development will have started. I believe that the next twenty years will be as great years for biology and medicine as the past twenty have been for physics and chemistry.
Eddington has said that the study of the physical world is a search for structure rather than a search for substance. If we ignore the philosophical implications of the words, we may say that the chemist and biologist in their study of living organisms must carry on both a search for structure and a search for substance and that the second of these must precede the first. Investigators have had great success in isolating chemical substances from living organisms, and in determining the chemical composition of the simpler of these substances. The chemical composition is also known of many substances of external origin which exert physiological activity on living organisms. We may consider this work of isolation and identification of active chemical substances as the search for substance in biology. The search for structure has also made great progress. From the one side biologists have, by visual observation with the microscope, made thorough studies of the apparent structure of aggregates of cells, of cells themselves, and of certain constituents of cells, such as chromosomes. This visual observation has provided information about structures in size extending down to 10-4 cm., 10,000 Å. Forty years ago the dark forest of the dimensional unknown stretched from this limit of the visible microscope back indefinitely into the region of smaller dimensions. In recent years the region from 10-7 cm. down to 10-12 cm., containing atoms and simple molecules, has been thoroughly explored by an expedition outfitted with x-rays and similar tools, and the physicists are strongly pushing back into the region of the structure of atomic nuclei, below 10-12 cm. Another detailed exploration is being carried out with the electron microscope: this has pushed the nearer boundary of the unknown back from 10-4 to 10-6 cm., although the major portion of this region has been only sketchily explored during the few years since the development of the electron microscope, and a very great amount of work still remains to be done.
The answers to many of the basic problems of biology -- the nature of the process of growth, the mechanism of duplication of viruses, genes, and cells, the basis for the highly specific interactions of these structural constituents, the mode of action of enzymes, the mechanism of physiological activity of drugs, hormones, vitamins, and other chemical substances, the structure and action of nerve and brain tissue -- the answers to all of these problems are hiding in the remaining unknown region of the dimensional forest, mostly in the strip between 10 Å. and 100 Å., 10-7 and 10-6 cm.; and it is only by penetrating into this region that we can hope to track them down.
There are many ways of investigating this region -- by x-rays, ultracentrifuges, light-scattering techniques, the study of chemical equilibria, the techniques of degradation, isolation, identification, and synthesis used by the organic chemist, serological methods, chemical genetics, the use of both radioactive and non-radioactive tracers, the use of electron microscopes of improved resolving power -- but no one method is good enough to solve the problem, and all of these methods must be applied as effectively as possible if the problem is to be solved.
At the present time we know in complete detail the atomic structure of many simple molecules, including a few amino acids; but we do not know in detail how the amino acids are combined to form proteins. We do not know, except very roughly, even the shapes of such important molecules as serum proteins, enzymes, genes, the substances which make up protoplasm -- and if we are to obtain a thorough understanding of the structure of living organisms detailed information about the atomic arrangement of these substances must be obtained.
Perhaps you will allow me to illustrate the situation by another analogy. Let us imagine ourselves increased in size by the linear factor 250,000,000 -- the commonly used factor in molecular models, which makes on Ångström unit, 10-8 cm., become approximately one inch, atoms on this scale being two or three inches in diameter. With this magnification we would become about equal in height to the distance from the earth to the moon. Let us consider ourselves examining the earth, which would appear to us to be about the size of a billiard ball; and let us concentrate our attention on a small organism on the surface of the earth, namely, New York City, which would appear as a spot about one-hundredth of an inch in diameter, barely visible to the naked eye, and showing itself to be living by the slow changes in shape and size which it undergoes. To obtain a better view of this organism we could use a microscope, the resolving power of which would be about one thousand feet; we could distinguish Central Park, the rivers, and such aggregates of skyscrapers as Rockefeller Center, but the individual skyscrapers would not be clearly defined. By "chemical" methods we would know that, running through the veins and arteries of this organism, there were substances such as street cars, buses, automobiles, ships, and people; and we might, by the use of membranes of known pore size or by some similar method, obtain the molecular weight of these. In addition, we would have obtained, through the application of a strange method of experimental investigation, the diffraction of x-rays and electron waves, quite complete information about the structure of objects smaller than about one foot in diameter: such as a storage battery, a small electric motor, a piece of cable, a small gear wheel, a bolt or rivet.
The use of the electron microscope, with resolving power about ten feet, would give us very much additional information. We would know exactly (that is, to within ten feet) the shape of the Empire State Building, though we might not be sure about the separate smaller rooms into which it is divided, and we could not obtain by the electron microscope information about the elevators and the machinery for operating them, about the steel girders of which the building is constructed, and other structural features of similar size. We would be able to see, with the electron microscope, an automobile only as a particle, barely discernible, and roughly spherical in shape, and the human beings in the city would not be visible. We could get complete information about a storage battery, a ring gear, a brake pedal -- but not about the automobile built up of these and many other parts; and it is clear that to obtain an understanding of the structure of this city we would still need to find a method of exploring objects in the size range between one foot and ten feet.
Our hope for achieving precise knowledge about biological structures and reactions is based largely on the electron microscope and on diffraction methods. The diffraction studies of simple molecules have been carried out in sufficient number to permit the formulation of generalizations about atomic radii, bond angles, and other features of molecular configuration; it is still very important that the exact structure be determined of vitamins, bacteriostatic agents, and other physiologically active substances -- the complete crystal structure determination of the rubidium salt of penicillin so ably made by Dr. Dorothy Crowfoot and Mrs. Barbara Rogers-Low1 has provided not only decisive information about the chemical formula of the substance but also the structural basis for later consideration of the detailed mechanism of its bacteriostatic activity.
The most important of all structural problems is the problem of the structure of proteins: until this problem is solved all discussion of the exact molecular basis of biological reactions remain in some degree speculative. The polypeptide-chain structure of proteins proposed by Fischer is now generally accepted, and there is little doubt that the picture of folded chains held by hydrogen bonds, van der Waals forces, and related weak interactions in more or less well-defined configurations, as discussed eleven years ago by Mirsky and me2, is essentially correct. But this whole picture remains very vague -- for only a few proteins (such as β-lactoglobulin3) do we have nearly complete knowledge of the numbers of residues of the different amino acids in the molecule, and for no protein does there exist moe than fragmentary information either about the sequence of the different residues in the polypeptide chain or about the way in which the chain is folded. Only for fibrous proteins in the completely extended state do we have knowledge (still very rough) of the configuration and relative orientation of the polypeptide chains (as originally determined by Astbury), and this knowledge applies only to the backbone of the chains and not to the side groups. There is urgent need for complete and accurate structure determinations of proteins and related substances. So far these determinations have been reported for only four such substances4 -- two amino acids and two simple polypeptides -- all made in our Pasadena laboratories; and it is my hope that, now that the war is over, the coming years will see a body of precise information rapidly accruing, and including ultimately detailed structures of fibrous proteins, respiratory pigments, antibodies, enzymes, reticular proteins of protoplasm, and others.
Despite the lack of detailed knowledge of the structure of proteins, there is now very strong evidence that the specificity of the physiological activity of substances is determined by the size and shape of molecules, rather than primarily by their chemical properties, and that the size and shape find expression by determining the extent to which certain surface regions of two molecules (at least one of which is usually a protein) can be brought into juxtaposition -- that is, the extent to which these regions of the two molecules are complementary in structure. This explanation of specificity in terms of "lock-and-key" complementariness is due to Paul Ehrlich, who expressed it often, in words such as "Only such substances can be anchored at any particular part of the organism which fit into the molecule of the recipient combination as a piece of mosaic fits into a certain pattern." In recent years the concept of complementariness of surface structure of antigen and antibody was emphasized by Breinl and Haurowitz5, Mudd6, and Alexander7, and then was strongly supported by me8 in the course of an effort to understand and interpret serological phenomena in terms of molecular structure and molecular interactions. Since 1940 my collaborators (Professor Dan H. Campbell, Drs. David Pressman, Carol Ikeda, L. H. Pence, G. G. Wright, and S. M. Swingle, and Messrs. D. H. Brown, J. H. Bryden, A. L. Grossberg, L. A. R. Hall, Miyoshi Ikawa, Frank Lanni, J. T. Maynard, and A. B. Pardee) and I have gathered a great amount of experimental evidence about antigen-antibody interaction9, which not only supports the general thesis that serological specificity is the consequence of structural complementariness, but also provides information about the extent of the complementariness. It has been verified that the closeness of fit of an antibody molecule to its homologous haptenic group is to within better than 1 Ångström unit -- that a methyl group (van der Waals radius 2.0 Å.) can replace a chlorine atom (radius 1.8 Å.) in a haptenic group with little interference with its combination with antibody (as was first shown by Landsteiner), but that interference is caused by replacing a hydrogen atom (radius 1.2 Å.) by a methyl group. The complementariness in structure with respect to proton-donating and proton-accepting hydrogen-bond-forming groups has been found to be very important in determining the strength of attraction of antibody and haptenic group; and the complementary electrical charge in antibody homologous to the p-azophenyltrimethylammonium group has been shown to be within about 2 Å. of the minimum possible distance from the charge of opposite sign in the haptenic group. The great amount of quantitative data which has been gathered for scores of different haptens and antigens and which has been successfully interpreted in terms of molecular structure and the concept of complementariness now leaves not doubt that this structural explanation of serological specificity is correct.
The phenomenon of specificity, so common in biology, is rare in chemistry (with the sole general exception mentioned below). Only very occasionally does there occur a unique representative of a class of compounds, such as the ion W2Cl9
---, which owes its special stability to the ratio of radii of the atoms of chlorine and tripositive tungsten, which permits a covalent bond to be formed between the two tungsten atoms in the complex. The one general chemical phenomenon with high specificity is closely analogous in both its nature and its structural basis to biological specificity: this phenomenon is crystallization. There can be grown from a solution containing molecules of hundreds of different species crystals of one substance which are essentially pure. The reason for the great specificity of the phenomenon of crystallization is that a crystal from which one molecule has been removed is very closely complementary in structure to that molecule, and molecules of other kinds cannot in general fit into the cavity in the crystal or are attracted to the cavity less strongly than a molecule of the substance itself. Only if the foreign molecule is closely similar in size and shape and the location and nature of active (hydrogen-bond-forming) groups to the molecule it is replacing will it fit into the crystal; and it is indeed found that the tendency to solid-solution formation depends upon the same structural features (such as replacement of a chlorine atom by a methyl group) as the tendency to serological cross-reacton.
Let us return for a moment to the analogy of a giant investigator, 250,000,000 times greater in linear dimensions than a man, who is studying the structure of the organism New York City. We might say that the chemical properties of a storage battery or rivet or gear wheel are those properties which are involved when it is broken into bits, and molecular size and shape are the properties which determine how the storage battery can fit into its rack and how an electric cable can be attached to it, how the rivet can be fitted into a girder, how the gear meshes with another gear; and on saying this we recognize that it is these properties rather than the "chemical" properties which are significant for the understanding of most of the physiological processes of the city, although the "chemical" properties are important too, especially in connection with growth and repair.
Many isolated examples of biological specificity and biological similarity determined by molecular size and shape and the detailed nature of intermolecular forces might be mentioned, such as the similarity in physiological (anipyretic-antineuralgic) activity of 4-isopropylantipyrine and 4-dimethylaminoantipyrene (pyramidon), which is clearly the result of the similarity in size and shape of the isopropyl group and the dimethylamino group. I shall, however, discuss in detail only the specificity of enzymatic reactions. From the standpoint of molecular structure and the quantum mechanical theory of chemical reaction the only reasonable picture of the catalytic activity of enzymes is that which involves an active region of the surface of the enzyme which is closely complementary in structure not to the substrate molecule itself, in its normal configuration, but rather to the substrate molecule in a strained configuration, corresponding to the "activated complex" for the reaction catalysed by the enzyme: the substrate molecule is attracted to the enzyme, and caused by the forces of attraction to assume the strained state which favors the chemical reaction; that is, the activation energy of the reaction is decreased by the enzyme to such an extent as to cause the reaction to proceed at an appreciably greater rate than it would in the absence of the enzyme. This is, I believe, the picture of enzyme activity which is usually accepted. Experimental data have not been gathered which permit the induction of so precise a representation of the structure and configuration of the active region of any enzyme as for the antibodies discussed above, but there do exist some data which support the general concept. If the enzyme were completely complementary in structure to the substrate then no other molecule would be expected to compete successfully with the substrate in combining with the enzyme, which in this respect would be similar in behavior to antibodies; but an enzyme complementary to a strained substrate molecule would attract more strongly to itself a molecule resembling the strained substrate molecule than it would the substrate molecule. Examples of this behavior have been found: the hydrolysis of benzoyl-l-tyrosylglycine amide by either chymotrypsin or papain was found by Bergmann and Fruton10 to be practically completely inhibited by an equal amount of benzoyl-d-tyrosylglycine amide. This suggests that the strained configuration of the l-isomer during the enzymatic hydrolysis is somewhat similar to the normal configuration of the d-isomer.
More extensive quantitative studies of inhibition of enzyme activity might well provide very interesting information about the configuration of the enzyme molecules. Professor Carl Niemann and I have studies of this kind under way.
It is highly probably that many chemotherapeutic agents exercise their activity by acting as inhibitors to an enzymatic reaction through competition with an essential metabolite of similar structure. It was shown by Woods11 in 1940 that the bacteriostatic action of sulfanilamide results from an inhibitory competition with p-aminobenzoic acid, and can be overcome by increasing the concentration of the latter substance. The metabolite and its inhibitor are closely related in molecular shape, differing in the replacement of a carboxyl group by a sulfonamide group. Other pairs in which a carboxyl group is replaced by a sulfonic acid or its amide12, pantothenic acid and pantoyltaurine13, and the α-aminocarboxylic acids and the corresponding α-aminosulfonic acids14.
An interesting case of inhibition is that of thiamin by pyrithiamin15, the corresponding substance with the 6-membered pyridine ring in place of the 5-membered thiazole ring. The effective competition of pyrithiamin with thiamin for the combination with the enzyme or other macromolecule involved might well have been predicted from the known cross-reactivity of aromatic 5-membered rings containing sulfur and 6-membered rings not containing sulfur, as is strikingly shown by the formation of solid solutions by thiophen and benzene. An analogous situation has been reported16 by Dr. D. S. Tarbell of the University of Rochester. He has found that any substitution in the benzenoid ring of 2-methylnaphthoquinone destroys its vitamin K activity, but that the substance with a sulfur atom in place of -CH=CH- in the benzenoid ring retains this activity. These facts indicate that in the process of exerting vitamin K activity the benzenoid end of the molecule must fit into a pocket carefully tailored to it; that the other end is not so surrounded is shown by the retention of activity on changing the alkyl group in the 2-position. On the other hand, the failure of pyrithiamin to replace thiamin as a metabolite indicates that the sulfur atom of the thiazole ring in thiamin not only is effective in binding the molecule into its seat of action but also takes part in some way in the subsequent chemical reactions involved in the metabolic process.
The complete understanding of physiological activity will require consideration not only of molecular structure and weak intermolecular forces, but also of the chemical reactivity of the substances and of such other properties as solubility in different phases and degree of ionization, as well as of those properties of living organisms which may long defy simplification to chemical description; the importance of the problem for practical medicine as well as for fundamental biology is so great as to justify the attention and effort of many workers, in various fields of science, through whose cooperative effort the solution will some day be found.
1. D. Crowfoot and B. Rogers-Low, mentioned in Science, 102, 627 (1946).
2. A. E. Mirsky and L. Pauling, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 22, 439 (1936).
3. E. Brand, L. J. Saidell, W. H. Goldwater, B. Kassell, and F. J. Ryan, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 67, 1524 (1945).
4. R. B. Corey, Chem. Rev., 26, 227 (1940).
5. F. Breinl and F. Haurowitz, Z. physiol. Chem., 192, 45 (1930).
6. Stuart Mudd, J. Immunol., 23, 423 (1932).
7. J. Alexander, Protoplasma, 14, 296 (1931).
8. L. Pauling, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 62, 2643 (1940).
9. L. Pauling and collaborators, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 68, 250 (1946), and earlier papers.
10. M. Bergmann and J. S. Fruton, J. Biol. Chem., 138, 124,321 (1941).
11. D. O. Woods, Brit. J. Exp. Path., 21, 74 (1940).
13. E. E. Snell, J. Biol. Chem., 141, 121 (1941).
14. H. McIlwain, J. Chem. Soc., 1941,75; Brit. J. Exp. Path., 22, 148 (1941).
15. W. J. Robbins, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 27, 419 (1941); D. W. Woolley and A. G. C. White, J. Exp. Med., 78, 489 (1943).
16. Private communication to the author.
- Newspaper Clipping: “Sophomore President”, Pasadena (California) Chronicle, May 17, 1946. [Filed under LP Scrapbooks, 1946-1950: Box #6.005, Folder 5.1]
- Newspaper Clipping: “[Re: Peter Pauling; Pasadena JC Student Elections]”, Pasadena (California) Junior College Chronicle [Filed under LP Newspaper Clippings, 1946n.1]
- Program: The George Westinghouse Centennial Forum, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, May 17, 1946. [Filed under LP Scrapbooks, 1946-1950: Box #6.005, Folder 5.1]
- Statement: "Travel Expense in re George Westinghouse Centennial Forum" in the amount of $259.49. [Filed under LP Travel Materials: 1932-1954: Box #1.001 Folder #1.5]
- Entry in Calendar: “Folk Dancing Class, Paddy leaves for home” [Filed under LP's Daily Calendar of Events, 1946, 1958-1966, 1968-1970, 1973-1979: Box #5.012, Folder 12.1]
- Newspaper Clipping: “Caltech Chemists Pry Into Unseen”, Los Angeles Times, May 18, 1946. [Filed under LP Scrapbooks, 1946-1950: Box #6.005, Folder 5.1]
- Newspaper Clipping: “Caltech Chemists Pry into Unseen”, Publication Unknown [Filed under LP Newspaper Clippings, 1946n.2]
- Newspaper article, comments from LP on chemistry and biology. New York Times, May 18, 1946. [Filed under LP Science: Materials re: Antibody and Antigen Research; the Nature of Serological Reactions, 1940-1947, 1950-1952, 1973, 1986: Box #7.001 Folder #1.1]
- Report of the CIT Executive Committee Conference on May 19, LP Safe: Drawer 3, Folder 3.019
- Entry in Calendar: “Garden Party 2 to 5 - Atch Young 800 S. San Rafael” [Filed under LP's Daily Calendar of Events, 1946, 1958-1966, 1968-1970, 1973-1979: Box #5.012, Folder 12.1]
- Newspaper clipping, “Atomic Radiation in Various Fields and Told of the Scientist Stressed at Symposium” New York Times, May 19, 1946. [Filed under LP Science: Materials re: Antibody and Antigen Research; the Nature of Serological Reactions, 1940-1947, 1950-1952, 1973, 1986: Box #7.001 Folder #1.1]
- Entry in Calendar: “Paddy arrives home” [Filed under LP's Daily Calendar of Events, 1946, 1958-1966, 1968-1970, 1973-1979: Box #5.012, Folder 12.1]
- Letter from Dr. Malcolm Dole to LP RE: Congratulates LP on having received the Willard Gibbs medal, and looks forward to the ceremony in June. Requests LP suggest someone to participate in a symposium on “Molecular Models” for the Chicago Convention of the ACS in September. Adds that a short abstract would be needed by July 1st. (Note in left margin: “Dr. Corey - Would you do it?”) [Letter from LP to Dole June 4, 1946] [Filed under LP Correspondence Box: #98.11, file:(D: Correspondence, 1946)]
- Letter from Jaques Cattell, Heck-Cattell Publishing, to LP . RE: Cattell has heard that LP is close to making a decision on his text, and hopes to see LP next month to discuss the possibility of publishing. [Filed under LP Manuscripts of Books, 1947b5.12]
- Letter from Mr. Douglas Veale, University Registry, Oxford to LP RE: Thanks LP for letter of March 26. Expresses that he is glad LP has accepted the George Eastman Visiting Professorship and that he has informed the Electors. [Letter from LP to Veale May 14, 1946] [Filed under LP Correspondence: Box #299.8, File: (Oxford University, [re: Eastman professorship and residency in Oxford] 1946-1948)]
- Offprint: "Editorial Agreement." Agreement signed by LP, editor, and William H. Freeman, publisher. LP Safe: Drawer 2, Folder 2.009
- Payroll stub from California Institute of Technology and Bank of America deposit slip for $1490.10 [LP Biographical: Business and Financial 4.068, folder 68.2]
- APS Newsletter, Vol.1, No. 10 sent to LP. [Filed under LP Correspondence: Peace 4.009.2 file:(Association of Pasadena Scientists, Newsletters, 1946)]
- APS Newsletter, vol. 1, no. 10, Published by the Association of Pasadena Scientists. Gives information on meeting of May 21, meeting of May 7, reading list, and steering committee meeting. [Filed under LP Peace: Box 4.009, Folder 9.2]
- Letter from LP to Dr. Warren Weaver. [Filed under: LP speeches, 1946s.11]
May 21, 1946
Dr. Warren Weaver
49 West 49th Street
New York 20, New York
First let me say that I am glad to have a chance to speak on the Philharmonic program, and I thank you for inviting me.
I enclose the first draft of my talk. It is 1,650 words -I thought that it would be better to get the advice of your group before pruning it. I shall be glad to have advice. It would be possible, of course, to give scores of examples of structures, but I have strived to get a message across - and I hope to be allowed to.
As for item 11. of your suggestions: Perhaps the most interesting feature of my scientific career is its breadth - possibly no one (modern) has covered - or ranged over - more branches of science.
Theoretical (even mathematical) physics: Book on quantum mechanics; papers on momentum eigenfunctions (Gegenbauer functions), spinning electron, etc.
General physics: X-ray spectra, magnetism, line spectra (book).
General and inorganic chemistry: Text book, many papers.
Applied chemistry: B.S. in Chemical Engineering; research on propellants; member of Explosives Division of NDRC.
Organic chemistry: Theory of resonance, etc.
Structural chemistry: Theory of directed covalent bonds, many crystal structure and electron diffraction studies, etc. Book: "Nature of the Chemical Bond".
Physical chemistry: Entropy of supercooled liquids, entropy of ice, properties of electrolytes, etc.
Analytical chemistry: instrument for analyzing for oxygen.
Mineralogy: Structure of silicate minerals and sulfide minerals.
Biochemistry and biology: Work on hemoglobin and other proteins.
Medicine: Work in immunochemistry; oxypolygelatin as a plasma substitute; Consultant CMR; Member Medical Advisory Committee to V. Bush.
- Letter from Robert B. Corey, to Dr. W. W. Farum, US Naval Powder Factory. RE: Is sending a complete set of drawings covering his universal harness and compression tester. Makes comments on the drawings. [Filed under LP Science: Assorted LP War Work, 1940-1946: Box #13.006 Folder #6.4]
- Letter from Walter Johnson of Academic Press, Inc. to LP RE: Asks LP to prepare the theoretical portion of a guide in the field of Immunology. Encloses some folders of the groups recent activities. [Filed under LP Correspondence: Box #7.1, file:(Academic Press/Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 1946, 1951-1952, 1989]
- Letter from James H. Stack, Assistant Managing Editor, to LP RE: Asks for a copy of the paper which he is to present at the Willard Gibbs Medal ceremony of the Chicago Section. If it is not completely ready, would be glad to receive a nontechnical summary stressing the newer aspects of the material. [Filed under LP Science: American Chemical Society: Correspondence, 1943-1948: Box #14.003 Folder #3.3]
- Letter from LP to Jaques Cattell, RE: LP thanks Cattell for the news clip, but regrets that he won't be in New York during the coming months. [Filed under LP Manuscripts of Books, 1947b5.12]
- Note from John R. Thomas to LP RE: Thanks LP for the May 13 telegram and for the offer to be a research fellow, but declines. [Filed under LP Correspondence: #410.11]
- Inter-department Communication from D.S. Clark to LP RE: Discusses the cost-sharing between departments to cover Dr. Hume-Rothery's upcoming visit and three lectures. Discusses potential subjects for Hume-Rothery's lectures. Suggests he be invited to lecture in October. [Memo from LP to Clark May 15, 1946, telegram from Kirkendall to LP October 16, 1946] [Filed under LP Correspondence: Box #163.4, file:(Hume-Rothery, William)]
- Letter from C.R. Heck to LP . RE: Heck would like to stress his publishing house's strengths in hope that LP will consider publishing with him. [Filed under LP Manuscripts of Books, 1947b5.12]
- Letter from Connie S. Lindau (Mrs. Alfred M. Lindau) to Dr. Albert Einstein, Chairman, Emergency Committee of Atomic Scientists. Encloses a donation to the committee. LP Peace: Box 3.005, Folder 5.3
- Writes cheque to “Mary Cuhill. Ovington, Treasurer. Negro defense Fund. Columbia, Tennessee” $5.00 [LP Biographical: Business and Financial 4.073, folder 73.4]
- Memorandum from LP to Commander Levering Smith, The Chief of the Bureau of Ordinance, Navy Department. RE: Distribution lists for reports issued by Contract Nord-9652. [Filed under LP Science: Assorted LP War Work, 1940-1946: Box #13.006 Folder #6.4]
- Newspaper Clipping: “These Interesting People”, Pasadena (California) Chronicle [Filed under LP Newspaper Clippings, 1946n.3]
- Telegram from Katherine Ludington to Dr. Albert Einstein, Chairman, Emergency Committee of Atomic Scientists. Plans to contribute to the committee if plan does not involved propaganda for a world state. Handwritten note on bottom stating no propaganda is used, the objective is education, and they would welcome her help. [Letter from Ludington to Einstein, May 27, 1946]. LP Peace: Box 3.005, Folder 5.3
- Writes cheque to “First Federal. May 1 payment plus 1000.00 extra. [Note: “Balance 1760.73 - 1210.24 = 550.49"]” $1210.24 [LP Biographical: Business and Financial 4.073, folder 73.3]
- Writes cheque to “Mr. Crellin. May 1 payment” $80.00 [LP Biographical: Business and Financial 4.073, folder 73.3]
- Entry in Calendar: “Picnic - Wilson's Swains Goldsworth's - 1 pm” [Filed under LP's Daily Calendar of Events, 1946, 1958-1966, 1968-1970, 1973-1979: Box #5.012, Folder 12.1]
- Letter from Esther Lowenthal to Dr. Albert Einstein, Chairman, Emergency Committee of Atomic Scientists. Encloses a donation for the committee. LP Peace: Box 3.005, Folder 5.3
- Letter from J.W. Williams to LP RE: Informs LP that he will do what he can to make it possible to appear in Pasadena for the presentation of the ten lectures over a five week period beginning around October 1. Looks forward to seeing LP in Chicago for the presentation of the Willard Gibbs Medal. [Filed under: LP Speeches, 1946s.8]
- Letter from R. C. Miller, Secretary, Pacific Division, AAAS, to Members of the Executive Committee. RE: Encloses the meeting minutes. Informs them that arrangements for the Pacific Division meeting are progressing well. [Filed under LP Science: American Association for Advancement of Science, 1938-1964: Box #14.001 Folder #1.3]
- Letter from Robert Spurr, University of Hawaii, to LP RE: States he is enjoying his new job and his supervisor is encouraging him to do research on the dielectric constants of gases and dilute solutions. Says he is also teaching two courses with mostly oriental students, and states he is enjoying his life and work in Hawaii. [Filed under LP Correspondence: #367.9]
- Magazine Article: “Gibbs Medal Awarded to Pauling”, Chemical and Engineering News, Vol. 24, No. 10, May 25, 1946. [Filed under LP Scrapbooks, 1946-1950: Box #6.005, Folder 5.2]
- Magazine Article: “Molecular Architecture and Biological Reactions”, Chemical and Engineering News, Vol. 24, No. 10, May 25, 1946. [Filed under LP Scrapbooks, 1946-1950: Box #6.005, Folder 5.1]
- Molecular architecture and biological reactions. Chem. Eng. News 24 (May 1946): 1375-1377. Written by: LP. [Filed under: LP Publications, 1946p.11]
- Entry in Calendar: “Campbell's Tea party any time after 2 pm. Didn't go” [Filed under LP's Daily Calendar of Events, 1946, 1958-1966, 1968-1970, 1973-1979: Box #5.012, Folder 12.1]
- Note from The Svedberg to LP RE: Regrets missing LP when he visited Pasadena, and mentions those whom he did see. [Filed under LP Correspondence: #370.11]
- Entry in Calendar: “Linda, Peter, Paddy have colds - all in bed” [Filed under LP's Daily Calendar of Events, 1946, 1958-1966, 1968-1970, 1973-1979: Box #5.012, Folder 12.1]
- Letter from Cleveland Norcross, Acting Executive Secretary, National Defense Research Committee, to Dr. Robert B. Corey, CIT. RE: Explains some confusion on the wording of recent statements made in the Administrative Circular. [Filed under LP Science: Assorted LP War Work, 1940-1946: Box #13.006 Folder #6.1]
- Letter from Katharine Ludington to Dr. Albert Einstein, Chairman, Emergency Committee of Atomic Scientists. Encloses a donation and writes that she feared the plans would include a world state because she is actively working with the League of Women Voters and they believe that immediate efforts should be put into strengthening the UNO. [Telegram from Ludington to Einstein, May 24, 1946, Letter from Emergency Committee of Atomic Scientists to Ludington, June 12, 1946]. LP Peace: Box 3.005, Folder 5.3
- Letter from T.C. Morehouse, Macmillan Company, to LP . RE: Having heard that LP is going to decide on a publisher, Morehouse would like to extend a formal publishing offer. [Filed under LP Manuscripts of Books, 1947b5.14]
- Letter from Warren Weaver to LP RE: Was delighted to receive his acceptance to speak on the science radio program. [Filed under: LP Speeches, 1946s.11]
- Writes cheque to “Mrs. Hadin Craig. Faculty tea” $1.25 [LP Biographical: Business and Financial 4.073, folder 73.4]
- Writes cheque to “Shephard & Co. 2 yr subscription as Life” $6.00 [LP Biographical: Business and Financial 4.073, folder 73.4]
- Writes cheque to “Treasurer. United States” $6.50 [LP Biographical: Business and Financial 4.073, folder 73.4]
- Letter from C. S. Marvel, Chairman, Chemistry Section, to Members of the Chemistry Section. RE: Encloses minute of the meeting of the Chemistry Section. Submits a list of men of interest. Encloses a caucus ballot on foreign associates. [Filed under LP Science: National Academy of Sciences, 1945-1951: Box #14.019 Folder #19.1]
- Letter from Elias Lustig to Dr. Albert Einstein, Chairman, Emergency Committee of Atomic Scientists. Encloses a donation and wishes for their success. LP Peace: Box 3.005, Folder 5.3
- Letter from H.I. Schlesinger, University of Chicago, to LP RE: Congratulates LP on being selected for receiving the Willard Gibbs Medal and looks forward to seeing him at the ceremony. [Filed under: LP Speeches, 1946s.8]
- Letter from LP to James H. Stock, Assistant Managing Editor. RE: Informs him that the paper will be done in a few days, and will be sent then. [Filed under LP Science: American Chemical Society: Correspondence, 1943-1948: Box #14.003 Folder #3.3]
- Letter from LP to Prof. A. Szent-Gyorgyi, Physiological Institute, University of Budapest. [Filed under LP Correspondence: #371.1]
November 15, 1946
Dr. F. H. Spedding
Atomic Research Institute
Iowa State College
Box 14-A, Station A
Dear Dr. Spedding:
I thank you for your letter of November 7. I am very interested to learn that you have been having such good success with the rare earth program, and that you are planning to investigate rare earth metals and their alloys. Best wishes to you.
In view of this circumstance, we shall, I believe, give up the main program which we had planned, and carry out only a small amount of work on these metals, in order to test some special points.
In particular, we would like to make measurements of the lattice constant of cerium as a function of temperature, and also to reinvestigate the magnetic properties of the metal. It would be a great help to us to have some of the pure cerium which you have prepared, and I would be grateful if you could send us a supply, perhaps 25 grams.
I shall be very interested to learn the results that you obtain about the crystal structure of samarium, as well as all the other results that you and Dr. Rundle and coworkers obtain. I assume that your investigations on the properties and crystal structure of these metals and their alloys will be published without delay.
- Letter from LP to Walter Johnson of Academic Press, Inc. RE: Agrees that a book on the theoretical and experimental aspects of immunology is needed but regrets that he will not be able to direct such a project for at least a few years. [Letter from Johnson May 21, 1946] [Filed under LP Correspondence: Box #7.1, file:(Academic Press/Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 1946, 1951-1952, 1989]
- Letter from Claude S. Hudson to LP RE: Regrets that he and his wife will not be able to attend the presentation of the Willard Gibbs Award in Chicago, but congratulates LP on this honor. [Filed under: LP Speeches, 1946s.8]
- Letter from Irving A. Manacher to Dr. Albert Einstein, Chairman, Emergency Committee of Atomic Scientists. Encloses a donation to the committee. LP Peace: Box 3.005, Folder 5.4
- Letter from F. C. Whitmore to LP RE: Regrets to inform LP that he will not be able to attend the presentation of the Willard Gibbs award in Chicago, however sends his congratulations to LP for this honor. [Filed under: LP Speeches, 1946s.8]
- Letter from Henry Lowenthal to Dr. Albert Einstein, Chairman, Emergency Committee of Atomic Scientists. Expresses his support of their work and encloses a donation. LP Peace: Box 3.005, Folder 5.3
- Entry in Calendar: “Linda's Birthday. Camera New Tires (bike) pair of white T-shirts, Loafers” [Filed under LP's Daily Calendar of Events, 1946, 1958-1966, 1968-1970, 1973-1979: Box #5.012, Folder 12.1]
- Letter from C. A. Elvehjem to LP RE: Congratulates LP on been chosen to receive the Willard Gibbs Award. [Filed under: LP Speeches, 1946s.8]
- Letter from E. Bright Wilson, Jr. LP RE: Sends LP his congratulations for receiving the Willard Gibbs Award however, regrets that he will be unable to attend this presentation because of prior engagements. [Filed under: LP Speeches, 1946s.8]
- Letter from Elizabeth K. Maley to Dr. Albert Einstein, Chairman, Emergency Committee of Atomic Scientists. Encloses a donation. LP Peace: Box 3.005, Folder 5.4
- Letter from LP to Dr. H.C. Spruth RE: LP submits two copies of his address entitled: “Modern Structural Chemistry” to be presented on June 14th. [Filed under: LP Speeches, 1946s.8]
- Letter from Walter Schmitt to LP RE: Apologizes for not being able to attend the presentation of the Willard Gibbs Medal to LP in Chicago, however extends his congratulations to LP for this honor. [Filed under: LP speeches, 1946s.8]
- Note from Charles Larson to LP RE: Congratulating LP for receiving the Willard Gibbs Award. [Filed under: LP Speeches, 1946s.8]
- Note from Dr. Thomas Addis to AHP RE: Sends the latest protein excretion results regarding LP's condition, which are a bit late. Also asks about Oxford. [Filed under LP Correspondence: Box #2.2, file:(Addis, Thomas 1946-1947)]
- Payroll stub from California Institute of Technology (period ending May 31 ‘46) and Bank of America deposit slip for $698.06 [LP Biographical: Business and Financial 4.068, folder 68.2]