In 1986, Linus Pauling, a Nobel Prize winner for both Chemistry and Peace, donated his scientific notebooks, all of his papers, and the papers of his wife Ava Helen, an activist for peace, to Oregon State University, their alma mater. These papers chronicle fundamental scientific discoveries of the twentieth century and historical events of the anti-nuclear peace movement. They are an important source of information for researchers in many fields, and an unusually comprehensive and significant archive of the intellectual development of a path-breaking scientist.
Linus Pauling undertook a wide range of scientific investigations during his seventy-year career as a scientist, profoundly influencing the development of twentieth-century chemistry and biology. Pauling also had a second career as a humanist and peace activist. His inspiration to fight for social and moral justice came from his wife, Ava Helen, who championed peace and women's causes throughout her life. The collection reflects Linus Pauling's long and varied scientific career, his and Ava Helen's devotion to world peace, and their devotion to each other.
The collection of nearly 500,000 items contains all of the Paulings' personal and scientific papers, research materials, correspondence, photographs, awards and memorabilia. Among the most prominent items in the Collection are: The original manuscript for Linus Pauling's seminal 1931 paper, The Nature of the Chemical Bond, which Pauling called, "the best work I've ever done." The research notebooks and original manuscripts for a number of Pauling's influential works, including General Chemistry, The Architecture of Molecules, No More War!, and Vitamin C and the Common Cold. The original petition for nuclear disarmament presented to the United Nations, which contains the signatures of more than 9,000 scientists and Nobel laureates from around the world including Albert Schweitzer, Bertrand Russell and Albert Einstein. Letters from many leading twentieth-century figures, including James Watson, Francis Crick, Martin Luther King, Jr., J. Robert Oppenheimer and John F. Kennedy. Linus Pauling's two Nobel medals.
The Ava Helen and Linus Pauling Papers is a huge collection, dating from Pauling's boyhood and the earliest years of his chemical investigations to the months just before his death in 1994 at the age of 93. Letters, photos, filmed and taped interviews, notebooks, journals and molecular models constructed by Pauling -- among the first such models ever made -- provide a unique record of the life of one of the twentieth century's most influential and outspoken scientists.
- Series 1: Correspondence, 1919-2000 Add to Shelf
This section is comprised of letters received by Linus Pauling as well as carbon copies of letters sent by Pauling. The correspondence section as a whole has been arranged alphabetically and sub-sorted chronologically. Within this broader schema, the correspondence section is further subdivided into three additional classifications: those individuals who made a prominent impact on either the history of twentieth-century science or on Pauling's life and work, have received their own entries under the heading Individual Correspondence. Likewise, correspondence with important organizations and institutions has been filed under the heading Organizational Correspondence. Finally, bulk mailings and more secondary materials have been grouped into General Correspondence files.
A complete listing of materials held in Series 1, including folder and item-level descriptions, is available here.
- Series 2: Publications, 1920-1998, undated Add to Shelf
This section mainly consists of original reprints of Linus Pauling's 1,100+ publications. Included in the Pauling Publications series are bibliographic citations for all of his scientific papers, books, popular articles, printed letters to the editor, forewords, introductions and support notices. The OSU Special Collections gratefully acknowledges the assistance of Zelek S. Herman and Dorothy B. Munro whose bibliography, The Publications of Professor Linus Pauling, served as the blueprint for this, the revised and expanded compilation of Dr. Pauling's complete published works.
A complete listing of materials held in Series 2, including folder and item-level descriptions, is available here.
- Series 3: Manuscripts and Typescripts of Articles, 1923-1995, undated Add to Shelf
This section features hundreds of manuscripts and typescripts of articles -- many of which went unpublished -- that were written or co-written by Linus Pauling. Also included is correspondence relevant to the development and publication of these articles. In many instances, abstracts, galley proofs, figures, research notes and other background materials have been interfiled where appropriate.
A complete listing of materials held in Series 3, including folder and item-level descriptions, is available here.
- Series 4: Manuscripts and Typescripts of Speeches, 1921-1994, undated Add to Shelf
As with the Manuscripts and Typescripts of Articles series, this section is largely composed of manuscripts and typescripts of speeches written and delivered by Linus Pauling. Also included is correspondence relevant to the writing, delivery and/or publication of these speeches. Further materials illustrating the logistics of Pauling's travel to the location of a speech's delivery, including correspondence, itineraries and other notes, are included as well.
A complete listing of materials held in Series 4, including folder and item-level descriptions, is available here.
- Series 5: Manuscripts and Typescripts of Books, 1930-1992 Add to Shelf
Manuscripts, typescripts and galley proofs of books written or co-written by Linus Pauling are the chief constituents of this section. Also included is correspondence relevant to the evolution and printing of Pauling's thirteen published books. In many instances, figures, artwork, research notes, publication contracts (both domestic and foreign), internal and external reviews and other background materials provide a fuller picture of the processes that informed each of Pauling's book projects. Special Collections also retains among its holdings several editions of each of Pauling's books, including numerous overseas translations. Finally, a great bulk of material is included concerning the handful of books that Pauling initiated but did not complete or publish.
A complete listing of materials held in Series 5, including folder and item-level descriptions, is available here.
- Series 6: Research Notebooks, 1919-1994 Add to Shelf
Linus Pauling's forty-seven original research notebooks form the heart of this section. The content of each research notebook has been cataloged in great detail, on the item level, typically spanning over one-hundred pages per container. The notebooks themselves span the years 1919 to 1994 and include many of Pauling's laboratory calculations and experimental data, as well as numerous scientific conclusions, ideas for further research and some biographical musings. In addition, item-level listings of the papers, notes and ephemera that Pauling often interfiled into his laboratory notebooks can be found at the end of each applicable container listing.
A complete listing of materials held in Series 6, including folder and item-level descriptions, is available here. In addition, Pauling's notebooks have also been digitized and are available to view online.
- Note: Note: Subjects covered in the research notebooks typically span many pages. The listings may be the same but the pages have different information on them and the associated images are different.
- Series 7: Newspaper Clippings, Magazine and Journal Articles, 1910-2002 Add to Shelf
This section boasts of over 3,000 newspaper clippings, magazine articles, journal articles, typescripts and press releases either focusing upon or mentioning Linus Pauling. The sheer volume of material in this section, both foreign and domestic, illustrates the degree to which Pauling was very much a public figure -- along with Albert Einstein and Robert Oppenheimer, among the most recognizable scientists of the twentieth century.
A complete listing of materials held in Series 7, including folder and item-level descriptions, is available here.
- Series 8: Honors, Awards, Citations, Diplomas and Other Recognitions, 1914-2010, undated Add to Shelf
The multitude of medals, citations, diplomas and other recognitions awarded to Linus Pauling are cataloged in this section. Included are the nearly fifty honorary doctorates received by Pauling during his lifetime. Prominent items include Pauling's two Nobel medals, the Lenin Peace Prize medal, the M.V. Lomonosov medal and the National Medal of Science. In addition, correspondence and other background materials related to the awarding of specific honors have been interfiled in tandem with the actual physical awards.
- Series 9: Photographs and Images, 1873-1995, undated Add to Shelf
This section -- the most frequently used of all the Pauling Papers -- is comprised of over 5,500 photographs, drawings and other images of Linus Pauling, his family and his colleagues. Historic images of both Linus and Ava Helen's extended family are available in this section, as are both professional and candid portraits of the Pauling family throughout the twentieth century. Special Collections holds both hard copy and high-resolution digital versions of the bulk of the photograph collection.
A complete listing of materials held in Series 9, including folder and item-level descriptions, is available here.
- Series 10: Audio / Visual, 1946-2011, undated Add to Shelf
This section consists of a variety of audio/visual materials related to Linus and Ava Helen Pauling and their work in science and peace. Audiocassette tapes, vinyl records, videotapes, Dictaphone belts, audio tape reels and film reels are among the media types held in the audio/visual collection. The content of these various recordings include commencement lectures, public speeches, radio appearances and taped interviews. In addition, Special Collections holds the original film reels used in producing the 1977 NOVA documentary, "Linus Pauling, Crusading Scientist."
A complete listing of materials held in Series 10, including folder and item-level descriptions, is available here.
- Series 11: Science, 1923-1994 Add to Shelf
This section has been divided into fifteen thematic sub-sections, which, when taken as a whole, reflect the extraordinary breadth of Linus Pauling's scientific biography. Boxes in the Science section typically hold manuscripts, research notes, correspondence, figures, experimental data, non-Pauling reprints and other scientific research materials. Generally speaking, materials have been arranged and cataloged according to research topic. However, two sub-sections reflect the institutional architecture either supporting or directing Pauling's work during specific periods of his life. For example, the bulk of the collection's holdings concerning Pauling's relationship with the American Chemical Society have been cataloged under the rubric "Scientific, Research and Grant-Funding Institutions." A similar approach has been taken with much of Pauling's work sponsored by the Guggenheim Foundation, Rockefeller Foundation, Ford Foundation, etc.
A complete listing of materials held in Series 11, including folder and item-level descriptions, is available here.
- Series 12: Peace, 1945-1994 Add to Shelf
This section has been partitioned into eight thematic sub-sections that illustrate Linus Pauling's manifold interests in topics of peace and humanism. The Peace holdings include manuscripts and typescripts, correspondence, notes, meeting minutes, non-Pauling publications and other ephemera reflecting the numerous concerns addressed by the Paulings and the international peace movement from the mid-1940s to the mid-1990s. Prominent items include the three-volume bound Bomb-Test Petition to the United Nations, for which Pauling received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1963, as well as a sizeable trove of materials related to Pauling's membership in the Emergency Committee of Atomic Scientists, formed by Albert Einstein and Leo Szilard at the conclusion of World War II.
A complete listing of materials held in Series 12, including folder and item-level descriptions, is available here.
- Series 13: Biographical, 1910-1996 Add to Shelf
Holdings in this vast section -- arranged both according to subject and format -- document a number of themes from Linus Pauling's remarkable, complex life. An eclectic array of manuscript and typescript materials, correspondence, notebooks, newspaper clippings, government documents, legal documents, tax documents and receipts have been sorted into sub-sections labeled Academia, Political Issues, Legal, Business & Financial, and Personal Materials & Family Correspondence. In addition, over 2,700 pages of loose-leaf scrapbooks compiled by the Paulings have been cataloged on the item level and reside in the Biographical section.
A complete listing of materials held in Series 13, including folder and item-level descriptions, is available here.
- Series 14: Travel, 1932-1994 Add to Shelf
A very substantial minority of the Paulings' time was spent traveling around the world to participate in conferences, give speeches and attend meetings. Over the course of their fifty-eight year marriage, the Paulings visited every continent, save Antarctica, and enjoyed lengthy residential stays in Europe, trips to the Soviet Union and communist China, and extended tours of Australia and New Zealand. This section documents the incredible breadth of Linus and Ava Helen's travel through its collection of itineraries, transit and hotel receipts, maps, and assorted background materials.
A complete listing of materials held in Series 14, including folder and item-level descriptions, is available here.
- Series 15: Ava Helen Pauling, 1927-2013 Add to Shelf
Manuscript and typescript leaves, correspondence, assorted biographical materials, publications and government documents related to the life and work of Ava Helen Pauling are the foundation of this section. Items of special interest include writings by Ava Helen Pauling on issues of peace, civil liberties and women's rights. The section also contains extensive genealogical data; correspondence and meeting minutes chronicling the work of prominent peace groups including the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, Women Strike for Peace and Federal Union; and other assorted personal materials documenting Ava Helen's activities both within and outside the Pauling family home.
A complete listing of materials held in Series 15, including folder and item-level descriptions, is available here.
- Series 16: Personal Safe, 1912-1993 Add to Shelf
The four drawers of Linus Pauling's personal safe contained an astonishingly rich and diverse collection of items which have yielded a much fuller portrait of Pauling's life and activities. Drawer 1 held over seven-hundred letters between Linus and Ava Helen Pauling, most of them love letters. Drawers 2 and 3 contained a number of items that Pauling had deemed to be either sensitive or important, including communications with world-historical figures as varied as John F. Kennedy and Ho Chi Minh. Drawer 4 served as repository for the dozens of pocket notebooks that Pauling carried throughout his life, as well as scores of Dictaphone belts on which Pauling had recorded chapters of a proposed autobiography.
A complete listing of materials held in Series 16, including folder and item-level descriptions, is available here.
- Series 17: Pauling Personal Library, 1806-1998 Add to Shelf
The 4,000+ volumes that form the personal library of Linus and Ava Helen Pauling are detailed in this section. Arranged according to author's last name, the books in the Personal Library bibliography are illustrative of the Paulings' many interests -- from pure science to sociological surveys to detective stories to crossword puzzles.
A complete listing of materials held in Series 17, including folder and item-level descriptions, is available here.
American Academy of Arts and Sciences
American Association for Cancer Research
American Cancer Society
American Chemical Society, Puget Sound and Oregon Sections
American Institute for Cancer Research
American Institute of Physics
American Medical Association
American Philosophical Society
Bertrand Russell Society
British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC)
Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists
California Institute of Technology
Chemical and Engineering News
Columbia Broadcasting System, Inc.
Cornell University Press
Eastman Kodak Company
Food and Drug Administration
Foundation for Nutritional Advancement
History of Science
Journal of Chemical Education
Journal of the American Chemical Society
Journal of the American Medical Association
Linus Pauling Institute of Science and Medicine
McGraw-Hill and Co.
Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
National Cancer Institute
National Institute of Health
New England Journal of Medicine
Nobel Prize Committee
Oregon Agricultural College
Oregon Multicultural Archives
Oregon State University
Orthomolecular Medical Society
Parke, Davis and Company
Physical Review and Physical Review Letters
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Soka Gakkai International
Sources for the History of Quantum Physics
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organizations (UNESCO)
W.H. Freeman and Company