Vannevar Bush was not the only one pushing for a war preparedness program. William
Allen White, a Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist and supporter of the Progressive
Party, also recognized the need for American preparation. In May 1940, he founded
the Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies (CDAAA), a non-isolationist response
to the America First Committee. White and his supporters advocated financial and
material support for Britain as the best means of containing the war in Europe and
preventing direct interference by the U.S. In a demonstration of unbiased commitment
to the cause, White refused to accept support or donations from any steel manufacturers,
weapons makers, or other parties that would benefit financially from the adoption
of his plan. As his campaign grew, he gained a number of notable followers including
journalist and political reformist Clarence K. Streit.
Many Americans were assuming a more confrontational stance than that taken by White.
One result was the formation of the Fight for Freedom, Inc. (FFF) organization, which
advocated an interventionist program that would place the United States forces in
direct combat with the German military. Where the CDAAA only supported involvement
through legislation like the Lend-Lease Act, the FFF campaigned for a preemptive move