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Jay Andre: Early one morning on July 16th, 1945 at 5:30am, Fermi found himself 10 miles from ground zero. He was gazing intently at the horizon, while busily dropping small pieces of paper to the ground from a height of six feet. Suddenly the pre-dawn sky was ablaze with light.
Jay Andre: Forty seconds later, the front of the shockwave reached Fermi and his colleagues. By measuring the displacement of the confetti produced by the shockwave, Fermi was able to determine the energy release of the explosion -- the same force as that produced by 10,000 tons of TNT.