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Ed Walkinstik-Man-Alone Oral History Interview, February 27, 1986

Oregon State University
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00:00:00

Karen Mason: Okay, we're gonna start with - her topics are family heritage is the first one.

Ed Walkinstik-Man Alone: -cause I have a little trouble hearing.

KM: Oh, sorry! Family heritage, that's the first one she wanted to start on - talking about.

WMA: Yeah. My family heritage?

KM: Yeah.

WMA: From the Choctaw Nation? Uh, I'm not exactly sure what she means.

KM: I think, as far as inherited. Is there anything left from your family? Your heritage.

WMA: I'm the last living member of my family. In fact, I'm absolutely the last living member, uh from a family of medicine people. Particularly herbologist. I still practice and still utilize Native American medicines, herbal medicines. Examples are - use aspirin. Aspirin's accumulative to the body so, uh, it is not good for you. Where you can use, like catnip. And make tea out of that and that 00:01:00acts very similar to an aspirin. Only thing is, it's healthful to the body. It also helps the blood.

KM: Can you get that around here?

WMA: Catnip - catnip grow wild. It's a member of the mint family. Now not - you can't use all mints. Cause some mints are poisonous. You have to know the how do you use it. A lot of herbs, even in a poisonous class, once you know how to use them, you can use them safely! Now of course, AMA has uh- hair stands up on the back of their neck - and that's fine. Course AMA is the authority, but they don't turn around and tell ya that most of the patent medicines they have right now, in one way or another, came directly from Native American resources. And this has been proven time and time again! Uh - I'm from the Bear Clan. Bear clan is like a family. Your last name is what?

00:02:00

KM: Mason.

WMA: Mason, okay. So you and your family would not marry any of the Masons of your family. O.K. - Bear clan means the same thing. We do not inner-marry. We cannot marry into the Bear Clan. We have to marry into the Wolf or the Eagle or the Snake. But uh, cannot marry into Bear Clan. It's forbidden.

KM: Is it - but it's not related like Bear family is it?

WMA: Oh yes.

KM: They're all blood related?

WMA: In one way or another. I mean right on down to distant cousins and everything else. You wouldn't marry your cousin. Well this is how we maintain separation. And it was formed into clans. We adopted the animal that most represented us and our feelings. In our case, uh, the Bear. The power - the strength - the cunning, and it can eat anything! (both laughing)

KM: Well aren't they vegetarian? I thought they were vegetarian.

00:03:00

WMA: Well - I don't know it you can call it vegetarian or not. Great-Grandfather now, when I was very small - I, like a lot of other kids, you know modern today, throw their nose up at food. You know, spinach or something like that. Well let me try this one for a diet! Great-Grandfather got - he was one that raised me when I was VERY small - until the - your government came and took us off reservations, and sent us to this nice, Christian schools. We'll discuss that later! Uh, anyway, I guess it's inherent in children - I don't know - for them to throw up their nose, and get picky about stuff like that. It happens in most of our people to. Well Great-Grandfather had a great way of settling these problems. Seems that I got a little bit out of hand over the food that was being fed. Course you know, we weren't strangers to hamburgers either, that particular 00:04:00era, because some of the garbage that was shipped to us down on Indian Row in Oklahoma. In fact we got to the point you know, we got into candy and things like that. Course, that's normal. And uh, we started getting pretty damn picky. I and other kids. And then uh, well I'm part of a, of seven children, part of a triplet and the only living one.

KM: Of seven?

WMA: Of seven. Of seven child I'm the only one living. And uh, they used to make a joke about Father - they called him Fertile Turtle, 'cause he started it at - having his children when he was sixty-three.

KM: Was - you were only eight years old when he died? Weren't you?

WMA: That's right. Yep.

KM: Was your Mother around?

WMA: Mom - Well Mom, like me, breed, except that she suffered a much heavier 00:05:00hell for being a Breed. And the fact that you know, when was out of the Kwakiutl up in Canada - and uh, already a Breed, cause it was either her mother or grandmother had been married to a Russian fur trapper. And uh, that broke the Great Law up there. You know, she married outside the people. And then, uh my Father was full blood - broke the Law. He married her. In fact, he was banned from every returning. He could never, you know, in fact to this day, we do not even know where he's buried.

KM: How do you feel about that? Do you - are you unhappy. I mean you're happy that he married your Mom, but would you rather have him not being banned - being apart.

WMA: No. Well I have to go with the feeling of my people. Uh, he broke the law. And that was wrong. I am not happy about it, unfortunately. I don't make a 00:06:00statement of malice or anything else like this but, I think he insulted me by giving me the other bloods that are in me, and uh because now I have to live with that stigma. From you know, my own people, and other Native Americans. I'm looked at even as less, and it's bad enough in the white world to be debased, but we are debased by our own people. Uh, you know, you're a man without a country.

KM: Are there many full-blooded Indians left? It doesn't seem like-

WMA: No - there are not many full bloods left.

KM: Of any nation? Choctaw-

WMA: No, no. Uh, I would say under 200,000. Under 200,000, and those that are full-blood, are either dying out, some are becoming simulated into the system, and have left the traditional aspect - or have been forced out of the 00:07:00traditional aspect. Or uh, or are totally protected! Such as in our people's case, you'll find most of the breeds we have are in Oklahoma. It's a little game that Jackson played back in the 1830's. I think you call it - well you know it as the Trail of Tears.

KM: Yeah, it was 1832.

WMA: 1832, or 1836. But Mr. Jackson, his liars now, where he made promises to us, and then turned right around and invariably turned right around and stuck us in the back. By turning around and saying "We want to move all tribes with the letter C", how the Seminole got in there I don't know, but I guess it sounded like the letter C.

KM: Uh hum.

WMA: So. (chuckles) The Choctaw Nation, well I don't know whether you want to call it Nation, we were a Republic. Very democratic. Agricultural. And we were 00:08:00the largest tribe east of the Mississippi. And, in fact, were right on the Mississippi. We weren't the meanest, but we were the largest, which took care of the meanest! And uh, we were responsible for teaching the weihoch, the white people and the French and the British, stuff like that, to navigate the Mississippi River from the Great Lakes all the way down to the gulf.

KM: What did you call em? Wa-ho?

WMA: Weihoch.

KM: Weihoch.

WMA: White Spiders. It's a Cheyenne word. My native lived around the Cheyenne and the Sioux, Arapahos, and those, and picked up terms like that. You know, the stick because we were so invariabley stripped! Not only of our heritage, but our language, our religion, everything. Including our names. We'll talk about that later. But anyway, we were responsible for the teaching of the navigation of the 00:09:00Mississippi River, which was passed on, and passed on, and passed on! The Choctaw Republic was a kind of a commerce tribe. Traded inner-tribally. Very much up and down the river. Okay. And the origin of the Choctaw are the mounds. And particularly one specific mound. I don't know where it is. Great-grandfather told me when I was very small, but uh, like I been pushed so far away by, almost beyond my control, that I have never been able to get back. Sit down and really learn that, okay - you were asking about the "Bloods". Now the Bloods are in Mississippi, still down on the delta. There's a small group of em. And they're very, very protected. I mean I can go down there, and I can visit, but I cannot stay overnight. And I do not blame them. I figure it's a curse my father left! And I know, honor thy Father, honor thy Mother, but that's your white man's 00:10:00book. Okay. The great comic book. As we'll find out later.

KM: Okay. Let's see. Well what kind of communities have you lived in? While you've been growing up?

WMA: I gave you a paper on one of 'em, the other day, and that was the Indian Schools, which were - Okay - born in California, down in Sacramento. And I shortly after I was born, Dad, you know back in Oklahoma, his family with him, and we were there for a while. And then the De-Indianization program, the 1920's and 30's. This is a Federal program to take the Indians off the Reservation. And make 'em white. And uh, you know, it's tragic, as the more I learn about it even 00:11:00today, that some of the ways they did it. Such as threatening the parents, that uh you will not get your per diem, whatever it is the government gives, so called money the government is supposed to give us, us if we were not good little Indians. You know, and if we didn't relinquish the children. Things like this. And uh, they took us off the reservations and shipped us a good distance, the schools you went to were never close. Where you could run away and go home. They, most times, shipped you over 2,000 miles. They shipped us from there, up into northern Washington.

KM: How old were you then? When they sent you to the schools?

WMA: Oh - (pause) imagine around seven years old.

00:12:00

KM: And that's - were you living with your Grandfather then?

WMA: Great - well, Great-Grandfather and Dad. Dad was killed a year later. Mom had already - well Mom was in and out, just put it that way. And any time she'd come in, she'd have a baby, and uh - she'd go away! (laughing)

Well it, it, it was a rather tragic thing to see, because uh again, it was the blood issue. And since she was not Choctaw people, and vice versa you know, I'm treated the same way as when I go to Kwakiutl. I go up to Kwakiutl - I've been up to the reservation in Vancouver, in British Columbia, and uh, it's as if the name never even existed up there. Her name. I can't get any information on her or anything. It's just as if she was never born! She must have been - I'm here (laughs).

KM: Do you know anything about her history?

WMA: Very little. I know some of the Kwakiutl history. I've attended a couple of potlatches.

00:13:00

KM: Is she still alive?

WMA: No. No, no. She's dead - as far as I know. From what, like I say, it's awful hard to get information when information is not as you probably have already found out - that most Native American don't even want to talk. And I can tell you later why they will not talk. But uh, it was based on mainly blood issues. In, as I was already at the government school about a year when I received word that my cousin had killed my Dad. My cousin was kind of, you know, well, he wasn't playing with a full deck. He was typical - atypical - totally debased individual that, uh, suffered a very heavy drinking problem. And a very very heavy psychological problem. And uh, I guess him and Dad got into it one 00:14:00day and the cousin decided to go ahead and skin him. So - that pretty much left it there. Well anyway, the government schools - they still exist. They are still, as far as I can determine, what happens at 'em is still suppressed. I find them revolting to say the least - debasing - counterproductive.

Give you an example. They sent me there to strip me and make me white. Now, in 500 years of fighting, no Indian has turned white! Let's fact it - I mean. You might shoot a gun and your skin turns white. Great! Okay. You'll find something 00:15:00out about Indians, as you go along here. But anyway, the government school created a great deal of psychological problems when I was young, and uh, there are still lingering elements of it. There is a very, very deep inset mistrust of uh, of promises. More or less, you will hear the term if you've been around Native Americans, that uh, "Well when I talk to him, I'm gonna stand sideways." And what it means is that, that man's honor is hobbling down. I'm not gonna face him. You know, it's like talking to a liar's mouth. It's not good. So, you take it with a grain of salt. Stand sideways, you know.

KM: When we went to the native longhouse that's the way - they were real uh, leary. Most of the people we talked to.

WMA: Well, I'm excited that your instructor has sent an individual like you out 00:16:00to feel what debasement is like. And distrust. More or less, you're sitting here - and you're maybe in your mind think "Does he trust me? I mean he's gonna talk to me, but does he really trust me?" Well that's something that you're gonna have to decide. It's something that you have to decide. You have to earn the trust. Your eyes are good. See, Mouth talk all it want. Eyes talk more. Your eyes are good - because if your eyes weren't, I wouldn't - you couldn't pay me enough to talk.

KM: My Mom says my eyes are really expressive, sometimes that's scary. Cause sometimes I don't want people to know what I'm thinking.

WMA: That's okay, that's okay, until they turn around and say they're bedroom eyes, or something like that. But, there's nothing wrong with that either. But, 00:17:00anyway - the Government schools were a lesson in horror. Absolute horror.

KM: In this one paragraph, you used "I was trembling so badly I puked. And then a white fellow slapped the hell out of me and made me eat the mess that came from my fear." That really happened?

WMA: Oh yes! Yes. Yes, uh I puked, and he made me get down and lick it up.

KM: Is this when you first went? At seven, eight years old?

WMA: I asked to recall everything that happened then, in California when I was attending college down there, strange - I hated the individual for making me do this, this was an English course, and he gave me an ultimatum. That you write about first person, singular, the thing you hated the most...or flunk the 00:18:00course. But if you wrote the paper, that would be the only paper you have to write in in the course. It, you know, if it was grammatically correct and everything like that. He just wanted to know if you could creatively write first person singular. And uh, he kept harping at me, and harping at me and uh, I finally reached a point where, you know, I started standing sideways. And I turned around and faced him once, and I said "Under protest I will write this paper - but if I ever hear of another student being forced to write it again, I will advise them that they are entitled to their rights of privacy, and this - what I have to say is private."

KM: Could you have gone around him - I mean could you have done something else? Not told him?

WMA: Why? And uh, be like the white people? I'm sorry. You know, but you know, you can't go around and practice what you hate! We, you know, I have a lot of 00:19:00very, very dear white friends. I do not see no color with them. And then I know a lot of white people, and I get in trouble every once in a while cause somebody'll do something or pull some kind of stunt or something like that. And I'll turn around and say "Well that was very white of you." And uh, now occasionally you'll hear me call somebody a weihocha.

KM: And that was not a compliment...

WMA: That is anything but a compliment. It is about - see there is no profanity in the Native American languages. Profanity is a Latin-based piece of garbage. You go to Asia, you know, amongst the Orientals or anything else. There is no profanity in their languages. Same thing with the Native American languages... There is no profanity! But there are references to (chuckles) a wahohotcha is uh, I think probably the lowest that that could be called upon other than white 00:20:00person, and then you say the person's a White Spider. And do you trust spiders?

KM: No.

WMA: Okay. Saying what that means is that the white person spins the web that tangles the Indian's feet. The Indian is free - or was - and uh, so he cannot move his feet. So he cannot dodge the new weapons that the white man is throwing. Because he cannot move quick enough. So that is the lowest element in Native American language which you could reach. Wahoo hotcha. And the term is Cheyenne, and a very good - Cheyenne being human being - and you'll hear words from a lot of different Native American languages. Well I've gone in and worked on Reservations all over the United States. Now there are no reservations in Oklahoma - it's now called Indian Row. It's just as sure what the government is doing - they have taken everything! We have nothing left. The last of what we 00:21:00had which was taken, you know, forty years ago. And that's it! That was shortly, you know, shortly after we went to government school. But from the government schools; we were forbidden to think Indian; forbidden to practice any part of our language; forbidden to speak any part of our language; we were beaten, physically beaten for it. We were handcuffed over a bench and beaten. To fraternize with other Indians, particularly the opposite sex, uh - any time that we were to talk, we were to talk in English.

KM: Did you learn those rules quickly, or were you kind a rebellious or-

WMA: Well I'll put it this way. Now I have been through many of your colleges out here. Because I'm tired of being called a dumb you-know-what Indian. And uh, the only way I can describe it is - the Pavlov's Dog effect!

00:22:00

KM: What do you mean by that?

WMA: You know what Pavlov's Dog is? It was an experiment done by Pavlov, a psychologist who turned around and had a dog respond more or less - you rang a bell, he'd go get some food. And then um, but if you didn't want him to go get some food, then you would shock him. See? You'd get him to do things, or get him not to do things. Like this, and then after a while, it became that he'd been hurt so many times, or rewarded so many times - after a bit, uh, it was not so much what happened to the dog, but the secondary effect is that the bell would ring - the saliva would come up. But what would you so, see? So it's, it's total control total control of an element, or total control of thought, total control of action, for fear of being hurt and the, you know, the anticipation of reward. 00:23:00It's all based on the bell.

KM: How were you rewarded? Just by not getting beaten?

WMA: I don't think we were rewarded. Beating was so common that I can be hit in the face today, and just smile and laugh at you. I can be physically slugged and just stand there and smile or laugh at ya, then I'll go from there. That's what has scared a lot of fellows that I have run into. And particularly in is, is that somebody'll punch me, and I'll turn around and smile at him, and then clean him up with a beer bottle. After a while, you go beyond what they call pain. Insult is only so deep, that pain is not even a question!

KM: How long were you at the Christian boarding school?

WMA: Well it was supposedly run by Christians. (deep sigh)

00:24:00

KM: Doesn't sound like it.

WMA: It's, it was very, very tragic. We were there until they were closed. And then we were sent to orphanages, but to give you an example: we had the white religion crammed down our throat, and were told we were filthy, and we were dirty. And we were Godless, and we were this - and in fact some of your religious books today even, turn around and say that of another color is, you know, Godless, something that I could never understand! Which also reminds me about the - Jane and Tom books that we had in the school. But uh, it was so tragic, you know, that to say we were Godded this and we were Godded that, and God wouldn't accept this, and well we were just totally told that we were even 00:25:00less than animals. And uh, we were convinced of it. I mean, by starvation, by physical beatings, by uh being locked outside in the cold. Inclement weather, various things. We were handcuffed to the bed. Things I don't even like to remember. Because I cannot believe a human being would do that to another human being! I mean killing is okay, you know, don't let him suffer - but this here, you wouldn't even do to an animal. And uh, the people did - and they were sanctioned to go ahead and do it - and in any way that they chose. Well the young lady that I had come up with in the Government school, we had both wound up in the same orphanage. Down in central California, and uh, well - she was I 00:26:00believe she was nine years old - and the same animal that beat hell out of me and everything else, raped her. She was nine. But see, we had no recourse! Had nowhere to go! You can't turn around and say "He raped me" cause they'd turn around "Aw..."

KM: How old were you then?

WMA: I was seven. And uh, he didn't make any bones about hiding it or anything else - he just hauled off and raped her. And it was, you know - up to that point, she was pretty, how do you call it, pretty fragile as it was, but that took the total, total wind out of her sail. Uh, it, it took that spark of life that you see in people. Hers died right there. And then, when we went down to 00:27:00the orphanage down in central California, the person that headed that orphanage turned around and said, after they explained everything else to us, he said "And also, you will become Christians" And she committed suicide the next day. Citing she'd rather be dead than be Christian! And we were, she was about - she was twelve years old then. So... these are memories that I have to live with. And then people ask me "Well, how do you come out here and trust?" And the only thing I can say is that "I trust - yes -but not like you." We cannot be at war forever. I think it is time for you people to understand us. You have asked, in fact demanded, that we understand you - all the way down to the point of total 00:28:00debasement, slavery, anything else that you want to call it. It's not right. I'm left with a funny taste in my mouth. And then - I still see it go on today. I want to be out here, but now I'm asking myself a lot of questions. Maybe I want to go to the hill. Go away from you people all together. It's um, (sigh) it's hard to live out here - and be what I am - or what I'm supposed to be.

KM: Out here in the N.W.? Is that what you mean?

WMA: No. In the white world. And be what I am. When everything you have out here is in total contradiction. I feel like all of me is missing. I have no identity. I mean it was just a few years ago that I got my name back. Twenty-two years in 00:29:00court to get that name back. I was stripped of it, and I, you know, when you were just finding out what your name was, you know! And uh, I'm not the only one. There's thousands and thousands of us that were stripped! Stripped of everything, you know, and it's, it's hard to go back and think about these things. I think now is the time that it should be put down of paper. Because, it is a consistent psychological battle. I mean, it's discriminatory all the way down to the university level. In higher education - I should say all the way up! In fact, flagrantly discriminatory! Just in requirements at the university. In 00:30:00your Bachelor of Arts degree, you're required foreign language -and to this day I cannot understand, I cannot understand it, you know it does not work upstairs as to why I should be forced to go take a language in the name of Humanities, you know, Spanish, Latin, French, German - when I was so brutally stripped of my Native tongue, thoughts and ideas. It's a double standard! It's, you know, well what is the word you use when - it's hypocritical. I mean, here you've stripped the Indian, indigenous, sacred people of everything they have, then you turn around and saying "For one more insult, I'll just let him study German - he can 00:31:00become German." Did you ever ask a German what they felt about that? You ought to talk to a German some time, and ask them what they think about what has happened over here and is still happening with the Native Americans. You're liable to get an ear full! Ask the Japanese. Ask the Koreans.

KM: You travelled all around the world. Did you travel in Japan and Korea?

WMA: I spent two and a half years in Japan. And uh, have threatened very, very thoroughly frequently, and even to this day, of returning. Become a "bamboo Yankee". I learned a lot about life there, and I learned about you know, my feelings, in Japan. I was collecting what is called Minyo. It's Japanese folk music. You know, tunes like Hakatubushi [?] all different tunes like this. And 00:32:00uh, I, I'm interested in other people. Deeply, deeply interested. I guess that's the only reason I'm still out here. 'Cause it's that I can't learn enough. I want to know more - I want to know why they act like this. As far as the white race is concerned, I don't know if there's any more to learn. I think we've seen enough. Now it's time to know more about the people. About the [unclear] because, you know. Sure there have been wars and this stuff like this, I see more of a kinship amongst the Japanese, and amongst the Polynesians, and the Mexicans, the Greeks and even the east Indians, than I would ever find amongst the Waho. It's you know, if there's a religion I would stand to out here, it 00:33:00probably would be Jewish, but no, I belong to the Native American church. And of course, right now the hair stands up on the back of their necks, they're gonna hear this, "Oh he's another one of those dopers." Well I expect that from the white mans' way of thinking. That you know, they got their and they, you know, they eat peyote, and they, you know, get all fucked up! Excuse the expression. The white man eats the peyote, and gets messed up. To us it is a very, high religious thing, is to go see the vision. And there's great preparation for it.

It is no, we just don't sit down and pop 'em in out mouth and say whoopee, here we go again. It's not that way. Even our religion is treated with dirt. A lack of understanding I think would be the thing, the breakdown in communication, the break-down in understanding. And I can't understand this because your people 00:34:00came to this, this great land, because of the same problems that you heap upon us today. Religion. Yours was in persecution. But I ask, then why do you come and persecute us? Our religion has gone back 25,000 years. It hasn't changed. It's beautiful! It works. Yours, barely 2,000 years old.

KM: What does the Government say when, I mean - they're not following in the Constitution, you know, as far as Indians are concerned. They just ignore it.

WMA: I think this Government is ashamed and when they get ashamed of something, 00:35:00what they do is ignore it - maybe it'll go away. But uh, what is happening is they are creating even a bigger battle later. They are creating their downfall, they are creating their weakness. Because another nation will see this weakness and they will work on that weakness. And you, as a government, will cease to be. Because your religion, your government, your ideas, are based on oneness of greed! How much can I get my hands on - you know. For me. Instead of the total outward, the, see...in the Native American world, there are two stark 00:36:00differences. The first one: is - it is not the individual's need - it is the need of the group combined. Not the individual's need, it is the group combined. What is good for the group - what is good for all of it. Okay. Your government talk, and that's all it does. It talk. It write fancy papers, and then I believe it also has amnesia. Because you can't get them to honor their paper. Their honor has hobbled down. It's a disgrace. Like I said, it's a liar's mouth.

00:37:00

I have hard time talking to anybody in the bureaucracy. I cannot stand and face 'em. Because I know when they open their mouth - it's the same thing that comes out the backside of a dog! It's the same thing, all the time. The other thing: that totally remains baffling to I and most Native Americans, is your innate demand that we must have a government like yours. We have to elect leaders, and they make rules and it's by majority vote - or, let's take this picture of majority vote. In your way, out here, majority vote means that the people will come in and vote. They vote "yes" or "no" and the numbers of "yes" or "no's" 00:38:00dominate and what is left to the abstentions go to a majority vote - "yes" or "no". That is so foreign to us - it's like having teepees and buffalos on a freeway! In rush hour traffic. It's something we cannot even comprehend. We do not have a centralized government! There is no such centralized government. It was the consensus of all - and we do not do things in a hurry. We take our time - go back and think about it -What is good for the all. Now, well let's get this piece of paper through and those that don't like it can suffer! We consider everybody.

KM: Do you have one leader? A Chief?

WMA: We have chiefs. In amongst the Choctaws, he's called Mingo. M-I-N-G-O.Mingo. Yes we have a Chief, but that's - again see, selected by 00:39:00consensus. He is an unofficial leader, just like the Medicine Man, is again is a form of unofficial leader. The Medicine Man, and the Chief are probably two of the loneliest of the people amongst the people. Because, they are, again, set apart. In fact, about the only person that would own his, own his own teepee or lodge, would be a Medicine Man.

KM: Your Grandfather was a Medicine man?

WMA: Yes. And my Grandfather, Great-Grandfather, his Grandfathers - uh, as far as from what Great-Grandfather says, uh, back all the way to the time when we were in the Great North. Where the skies were rainbows. So he always tells me the borealis - guess so that means back before the time, before we became what 00:40:00is called the "Disowned". Before we broke the Great Law and came south. And to not return. See we are Longhouse People, and as lodge tales have it, we had left up there and found hunting and comfort and everything else down here - so good that our people started migrating down, and staying longer, and longer and longer. Eventually did not return, and this broke the Great Law. So, uh, we became the Disowned, and later what you call the Five Civilized Tribes. The word Civilized Tribes does not mean, you know, how do you say it, ran around in Brooks Brothers suits of anything - you know - it means agricultural. We were farming Indians.

KM: Were you hunting and gathering before that? Have you always been agricultural, or were you a hunting and gathering - You just - Choctaw [unclear].

WMA: Uh I am not sure. I'm really not sure. See, I didn't have enough time with 00:41:00Great-Grandfather. Like I said, I'm so sorely hurt by being stripped of so much that I should have known - and that I'm trying to learn now. In fact, see, I'm going through an inversion of what has been taught! To go back and find out where I came from - and why I feel like I feel. Why is the taste in my mouth so bad all the time. I, you know, I will finish my degree here, and I have hopes-

KM: At Oregon State?

WMA: I hope to finish my degree at Oregon State, yes. Both my baccalaureates and my Masters. If I stay out here, it will be for only one reason. And that is a 00:42:00problem solver. I want to build a bridge - solve the problems. You know, build a bridge so that the future Native Americans that are coming out here do not suffer the culture shock that those up to this day have, and are still suffering. That I'm suffering. I want, I want them to be able to walk equally. But I want the people out here to understand to that hey, you know, you don't go out and catch a wild bird, and throw him in a cage! And turn around and say "Now, you will tweet." First off - the bird doesn't know what you're saying. Second off, he's in such foreign surroundings - you know, the shock - if he survives - you know, well, that's one point plus in your favor! Maybe. If he survives angry that is not a point in your favor. That means in time, there will 00:43:00be future trouble. And you are starting to see some of these troubles, that you have created already. In Wounded Knee, when this happened here a few years ago, and at Alcatraz -I was on Alcatraz. At the Nisqually fish-in. Back in the 60' s. Actually, back in the 50's. You're seeing it again right now. At Big Mountain, amongst the Din and the Hopi. Din - Navajo you know. I do not understand why, even today, as advanced and educated as you claim to be - and as, how do you say the word - Humanitarian - to all these nations in the world - that you 00:44:00deliberately come in and steal. Blatantly, openly steal. In the name of greed!

You know, more money. Why -why - why rape 00:45:00 00:46:00 00:47:00 00:48:00 00:49:00 00:50:00 00:51:00 00:52:00 00:53:00 00:54:00 00:55:00 00:56:00 00:57:00 00:58:00 00:59:00 01:00:00 01:01:00 01:02:00 01:03:00 01:04:00 01:05:00 01:06:00 01:07:00 01:08:00 01:09:00 01:10:00 01:11:00 01:12:00 01:13:00 01:14:00 01:15:00 01:16:00 01:17:00 01:18:00 01:19:00 01:20:00 01:21:00 01:22:00 01:23:00 01:24:00 01:25:00 01:26:00 01:27:00 01:28:00 01:29:00 01:30:00 01:31:00 01:32:00 01:33:00 01:34:00