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Ava Helen and Linus Pauling Papers, 1910-1994

By Finding aid prepared by Chris Petersen, Cliff Mead and Special Collections staff.

Collection Overview

Title: Ava Helen and Linus Pauling Papers, 1910-1994

Predominant Dates: 1922-1991

ID: MSS Pauling

Primary Creator: Pauling, Linus (1901-1994)

Extent: 1450.0 cubic feet. More info below.

Arrangement: The Ava Helen and Linus Pauling Papers are described in seventeen series. A complete finding aid, featuring folder and item-level description of the Ava Helen and Linus Pauling Papers, is available online.

Languages of Materials: English [eng]


Linus Pauling (1901-1994), a 1922 OSU graduate and the only recipient of two unshared Nobel Prizes, (Chemistry, 1954; Peace, 1962) undertook a wide range of studies during his seventy-year career as a scientist, humanitarian and peace activist. The collection, comprised of over five hundred thousand items, contains all of Pauling's personal and scientific papers, research materials, correspondence, photographs, awards, and memorabilia. Not only does the Pauling archive reflect Linus Pauling's long and varied scientific career, the presence of Ava Helen Pauling's (1903-1981) papers also indicates their mutual devotion to world peace and to each other.  A complete finding aid, featuring folder and item-level description of the Ava Helen and Linus Pauling Papers, is available online.

Access to materials related to Vitamin C cancer therapy in Series 11 is restricted due to the presence of confidential information. All requests for access to this material should be directed to the University Archivist.

Scope and Content Notes

In 1986, Linus Pauling, a Nobel Prize winner for both Chemistry and Peace, donated his scientific notebooks, all of his papers, and the papers of his wife Ava Helen, an activist for peace, to Oregon State University, their alma mater. These papers chronicle fundamental scientific discoveries of the twentieth century and historical events of the anti-nuclear peace movement. They are an important source of information for researchers in many fields, and an unusually comprehensive and significant archive of the intellectual development of a path-breaking scientist.

Linus Pauling undertook a wide range of scientific investigations during his seventy-year career as a scientist, profoundly influencing the development of twentieth-century chemistry and biology. Pauling also had a second career as a humanist and peace activist. His inspiration to fight for social and moral justice came from his wife, Ava Helen, who championed peace and women's causes throughout her life. The collection reflects Linus Pauling's long and varied scientific career, his and Ava Helen's devotion to world peace, and their devotion to each other.

The collection of nearly 500,000 items contains all of the Paulings' personal and scientific papers, research materials, correspondence, photographs, awards and memorabilia. Among the most prominent items in the Collection are: The original manuscript for Linus Pauling's seminal 1931 paper, The Nature of the Chemical Bond, which Pauling called, "the best work I've ever done." The research notebooks and original manuscripts for a number of Pauling's influential works, including General Chemistry, The Architecture of Molecules, No More War!, and Vitamin C and the Common Cold. The original petition for nuclear disarmament presented to the United Nations, which contains the signatures of more than 9,000 scientists and Nobel laureates from around the world including Albert Schweitzer, Bertrand Russell and Albert Einstein. Letters from many leading twentieth-century figures, including James Watson, Francis Crick, Martin Luther King, Jr., J. Robert Oppenheimer and John F. Kennedy. Linus Pauling's two Nobel medals.

The Ava Helen and Linus Pauling Papers is a huge collection, dating from Pauling's boyhood and the earliest years of his chemical investigations to the months just before his death in 1994 at the age of 93. Letters, photos, filmed and taped interviews, notebooks, journals and molecular models constructed by Pauling -- among the first such models ever made -- provide a unique record of the life of one of the twentieth century's most influential and outspoken scientists.

Biographical / Historical Notes

Linus Pauling

Born in Portland, Oregon on February 28, 1901, Linus Pauling is widely regarded as one of the most influential scientists of all time.

After receiving his B.S. in chemical engineering from Oregon Agricultural College (Now Oregon State University) in 1922, Pauling went to the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), where, in 1925, he took his Ph.D., majoring in chemistry with minors in physics and mathematics. With the help of a Guggenheim Fellowship, Pauling studied the fledgling discipline of quantum mechanics in Europe for a year and a half, becoming one of the first scientists to gain a strong understanding of both chemistry and the new physics. This crossing of disciplinary boundaries was a characteristic of Pauling's scientific work throughout his career. It was the fuel of Pauling's "stochastic" research method, whereby he would theorize several ideas, and discard the bad ones.

After completing his fellowship, Pauling returned to Caltech to join the chemistry faculty. In 1937 he was named chairman of the department, a position he would hold for the next twenty years. In 1939 Pauling would publish The Nature of the Chemical Bond, which remains the most frequently-cited scientific publication of the twentieth century.

In the mid-1930's, Pauling brought his knowledge of molecular structure to bear on biological molecules, particularly hemoglobin - the protein in the red blood cells. By the end of the 1940s, Pauling had determined the basic structure of proteins, the alpha-helix. He further suggested that sickle-cell anemia was a molecular disease, a hypothesis that he would later confirm with a colleague, Harvey Itano. Pauling also utilized his commitment to the U.S. government during World War II to explore practical applications of his research, chiefly through his successful development of a substitute for blood plasma. In many respects, Pauling was the godfather of modern molecular biology.

Pauling's public and political activities during the 1950s made him one of the most well-known scientists of the twentieth century. His outspoken manner on the issues of loyalty oaths, nuclear bomb tests and disarmament, as well as a host of other peace and humanitarian causes resulted in both government and media harassment for more than a decade as well as a concomitant reputation as both a maverick and a hero.

In 1954, Pauling was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his research into chemical bonding. Pauling's award marked the first time the Nobel Committee had awarded a prize for a body of work, rather than one hallmark discovery. Following the Nobel ceremonies in Stockholm, Pauling and his wife, Ava Helen, embarked upon a lecture tour around the world. Throughout his life, Pauling's traveling companion for the bulk of his numerous journeys was Ava Helen, to whom he was married for nearly sixty years. Only through Ava Helen's death in 1981, could Linus be separated from the person he commonly referred to as "the greatest influence on my life."

In 1963, Pauling was awarded a second Nobel Prize for his efforts to achieve nuclear disarmament, which he dedicated to Ava Helen. The genesis for the 1963 award was Pauling's 1958 submission to the United Nations of a petition signed by over 9,000 international scientists advocating the cessation of nuclear testing. Notice of Pauling's receipt of the Peace Prize was given on the same day that the United States and the Soviet Union signed a treaty agreeing to halt all above-ground nuclear explosions. Linus Pauling remains the only individual to be awarded two unshared Nobel Prizes.

After leaving Caltech, Pauling's scientific career centered around medical issues. Once again, he used his scientific knowledge to make advances in a discipline other than his original field of expertise. His research led him to develop the concept of orthomolecular medicine. Pauling also espoused the health benefits of megadoses of vitamin C. In 1973 he founded the Institute of Orthomolecular Medicine to expedite his forward-thinking research. To this day the Institute, now known as the Linus Pauling Institute of Science and Medicine and located on the campus of Oregon State University, carries on the legacy of Pauling's work in medicine and nutrition.

Linus Pauling died on August 19, 1994.

Ava Helen Pauling

Ava Helen Miller was born the tenth of twelve children on a farm near Oregon City, Oregon on December 24, 1903. After Graduating from Salem High School, she attended Oregon Agricultural College, Where she met Linus Pauling in 1922, her teacher in a chemistry course for home economics students. She said of her first opinion of him: "He impressed me as the man among men. I listened to him with the deepest admiration and respect." They were married in Salem, Oregon on June 17, 1923. Ava Helen later wrote, "My future husband came into my life when I was still something of a child and from then on he has been not only my ideal, but my life as well."

By taking on the responsibilities of their home life and four children, Ava Helen enabled Linus to Spend his time immersed in the pursuit of science. Prior to winning his first Nobel prize, Ava Helen urged her husband to join her in the fight for peace, stating that his scientific work would not be of any value if the world was destroyed. Accordingly, Linus came to devote much of his time to "peace work."

Together, Ava Helen and Linus spoke out against the internment of Japanese-Americans during World War II. Ava Helen also stood by her husband's side as he battled Congress when denied a passport in 1952. Most significantly, the couple focused their energies on eradicating the horrors of nuclear warfare. The Paulings organized the Appeal to Stop the Spread of Nuclear Weapons, a petition signed by approximately 9,000 scientists when submitted to the United Nations in 1958. In 1961, Ava Helen and Linus arranged the Oslo Conference Against the Spread of Nuclear Weapons, a symposium on the prevention of further development of nuclear weapons. Sixty scientists from 15 countries attended. The conference's recommendations were essentially identical to the nuclear nonproliferation policies announced by President John F. Kennedy the next year.

In addition to inspiring her husband's humanitarian causes, Ava Helen was involved with several peace and civil liberties organizations herself. For three years, she served as National Vice-President of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom. She was a board member of the Los Angeles Chapter of the American Civil Liberties Union for seven Years and a lifelong member of the Women Strike for Peace.

Ava Helen traveled throughout the world giving lectures on peace and human rights.

Among the several awards that Ava Helen Pauling received are the Janice Holland Award of the Pennsylvania chapter of Women Strike for Peace (awarded jointly with her husband), an honorary doctorate (Doctor of World Peace) from San Gabriel College, and the Ralph Atkinson Award of the Monterey County Chapter of the ACLU. This last honor reads: "...to Ava Helen Pauling, who spoke out against the internment of Japanese-Americans in 1942... challenged the inquisitorial committees of Congress in the 1950s and 1960s... and has actively supported the ACLU and its programs for half a century.

In recognition of her peace efforts, Oregon State University's College of Liberal Arts established the Ava Helen Pauling Lectureship on World Peace in 1982. The inaugural lecturer was Linus Pauling and subsequent lecturers have included Paul Warnke, Helen Caldicott, Noam Chomsky and Arun Gandhi.

Ava Helen passed away on October 7, 1981. She and Linus Pauling shared 58 wonderful years together. Whenever asked what his greatest discovery was, Linus Pauling always replied, "My wife."

Administrative Information

More Extent Information: 2,230 boxes, 4,111 books.

Statement on Access:

Access to materials related to Vitamin C cancer therapy in Series 11 is restricted due to the presence of confidential information. All requests for access to this material should be directed to the University Archivist. All other materials in this collection are open for research.

Access to materials related to Vitamin C cancer therapy in Series 11 are restricted due to the presence of confidential information. All requests for access to this material should be directed to the University Archivist.

Acquisition Note: Collection arrived in installments. Two major shipments were accessioned in December 1986 and in February 1998.

Related Materials:

Components of the Pauling Papers have been digitized and contextualized for use in a number of online resources, including a collection of documentary history websites, a lengthy chronology of Pauling's life, and a blog. These digital resources may be accessed through the Linus Pauling Online portal.

Several oral history interviews available in the History of Science Oral History Collection (OH 017) have been conducted with individuals connected to the lives of Linus and Ava Helen Pauling. Included among these are multi-part recordings with Linus Pauling Jr., Cheryl Pauling, Kay Pauling, Kenneth Hedberg and Stephen Lawson.

Other collections of interest to those researching Pauling include the Ewan Cameron Papers (MSS Cameron), the Jack Dunitz Papers (MSS Dunitz), the Paul Emmett Papers (MSS Emmett), the Thomas Hager Papers (MSS Hager), the Roger Hayward Papers (MSS Hayward), and the David and Clara Shoemaker Papers (MSS Shoemaker).

See also: Linus Pauling Online and the Pauling Blog

Preferred Citation: Ava Helen and Linus Pauling Papers (MSS Pauling), Oregon State University Special Collections and Archives Research Center, Corvallis, Oregon.

Processing Information: Arrangement by Chris Petersen, Clifford S. Mead and the OSU Libraries Special Collections staff.


Pauling, Linus (1901-1994)
Addis, Thomas
Albrecht, Gustav (1912-)
Allen, Fred J.
Andrade, E. N. da C. (Edward Neville da Costa) (1887-1971)
Aydelotte, Frank (1880-1956)
Baumgartner, W.
Beadle, George Wells (1903-1989)
Beckman, Arnold O.
Bergman, Gunnar
Bernal, J. D. (John Desmond) (1901-)
Bethe, Hans A. (Hans Albrecht) (1906-2005)
Bohr, Niels Henrik David (1885-1962)
Born, Max (1882-1970)
Bragg, William Lawrence, Sir (1890-1971)
Branson, Herman R. (Herman Russell) (1914-1995)
Brasseur, Henri
Brenner, Sydney
Bridgman, P. W. (Percy Williams) (1882-1961)
Brockway, L. O. (Lawrence Olin) (1907-)
Bronk, Detlev W. (Detlev Wulf) (1897-1975)
Brown, Harrison (1917-1986)
Brunauer, Stephen
Bush, Vannevar (1890-1974)
Cameron, Ewan (1922-)
Campbell, Dan Hampton (1908-1974)
Carlson, Chester Floyd (1906-1968)
Catchpool, John Francis
Cherkin, Arthur
Conant, James Bryant (1893-1978)
Condon, Edward Uhler (1902-1974)
Corey, Robert
Coryell, Charles D. (Charles Du Bois) (1912-)
Cousins, Norman
Crick, Francis (1916-2004)
Daudel, Raymond
Davenport, Derek A.
Debye, Peter J. W. (Peter Josef William) (1884-)
Degard, Charles
Delbruck, Max
Dickinson, Roscoe G.
Donohue, Jerry (1920-)
DuBridge, Lee A. (Lee Alvin) (1901-)
Dunitz, Jack D.
Eaton, Cyrus Stephen (1883-1979)
Edsall, John Tileston (1902-)
Einstein, Albert (1879-1955)
Emmett, Paul H. (Paul Hugh) (1900-1985)
Ewing, Frederick V.
Fajans, Kasimir, 1887-
Feynman, Richard Phillips
Franck, James (1882-1964)
Franklin, Rosalind (1920-1958)
Fritchman, Stephen H. (Stephen Hole) (1902-)
Fulton, John (1868-1953)
Gamow, George (1904-1968)
Goudsmit, Samuel Abraham (1902-)
Gurwitsch, A. A.
Hager, Thomas
Haldane, J. B. S. (John Burdon Sanderson) (1892-1964)
Harker, David (1906-)
Harris, Milton (1906-1991)
Haurowitz, Felix (1896-)
Hayward, Roger
Hedberg, Kenneth W. (1920-2019)
Heisenberg, Werner (1901-1976)
Hendricks, Sterling B.
Herman, Z. S.
Hicks, Richard E. (1929-)
Hodgkin, Dorothy (1910-1994)
Hoffer, Abram (1917-)
Hoffman, Roald
Hughes, Edward (Edward William)
Hultgren, Ralph
Hutchins, Robert Maynard (1899-1977)
Itano, Harvey A.
Jahn, Gunnar (1883-1971)
Jeffress, Lloyd A. (Lloyd Alexander) (1900-)
Jehle, Herbert
Joliot-Curie, Frederic
Joliot-Curie, Irene (1897-1956)
Karplus, Martin (1930-)
Kay, Lily E.
Kendrew, John C. (John Cowdery) (1917-)
Kennedy, John F. (John Fitzgerald) (1917-1963)
King, Martin Luther, Jr. (1929-1968)
Kistiakowsky, George B. (George Bogdan) (1900-)
Landsteiner, Karl (1868-1943)
Langmuir, Irving (1881-1957)
Latimer, Wendell M. (Wendell Mitchell) (1893-1955)
Laue, Max Theodor Felix von (1879-1960)
Lederberg, Joshua
Lewis, Gilbert Newton (1875-1946)
Libby, Willard F.
Lipscomb, William N.
Lonsdale, Kathleen, Dame (1903-1971)
Luria, S. E. (Salvador Edward) (1912-)
Mark, H. F. (Herman Francis) (1895-1992)
McConnell, Harden M.
Meselson, Matthew
Millikan, Robert Andrews (1868-1953)
Mirsky, Alfred E.
Moore, Walter John (1918-)
Morgan, Thomas Hunt (1866-1945)
Morrison, Philip
Morse, Wayne L. (Wayne Lyman) (1900-1974)
Mueller, Hermann J.
Mulliken, Robert Sanderson
Noel-Baker, Philip Noel-Baker, Baron
Noyes, Arthur Amos (1866-1936)
Noyes, W. Albert (William Albert) (1898-1980)
Oparin, Aleksandr Ivanovich (1894-1980)
Oppenheimer, J. Robert (1904-1967)
Palmer, Kenneth J. (Kenneth James) (1945-)
Paradowski, Robert J. (Robert John) (1940-)
Pauling, Ava Helen
Perutz, Max F.
Piel, Gerard
Pressman, David
Rabi, I. I. (Isidor Isaac) (1898-1988)
Rabinowitch, Eugene (1901-)
Rich, Alexander
Richards, Evelleen
Robinson, Arthur (1942-)
Rotblat, Joseph (1908-2005)
Russell, Bertrand (1872-1970)
Sackler, Arthur M.
Sakharov, Andrei (1921-1989)
Schoenflies, A. (Arthur) (1853-1928)
Schomaker, Verner
Schweitzer, Albert (1875-1965)
Seaborg, Glenn Theodore (1912-1999)
Selye, Hans (1907-)
Shand, W. J. S.
Shapley, Harlow (1885-1972)
Shockley, William (1910-)
Shoemaker, David P.
Sommerfeld, Arnold (1868-1951)
Springall, H. D.
Stanley, Wendell M. (Wendell Meredith) (1904-)
Stitt, Fred A.
Stone, Irwin
Sturtevant, James H. (Holmes)
Sutton, Leslie (1906-1992)
Szent-Gyorgyi, Albert (1893-1986)
Szilard, Leo
Teller, Edward (1908-2003)
Tiselius, Arne (1902-)
Todd, Alexander R. (Alexander Robertus) (1907-)
Tolman, Richard Chace (1881-1948)
Urey, Harold Clayton, 1893-1981
Van Niel, Cornelis Bernardus (1897-1986)
Van Vleck, J. H. (John Hasbrouck) (1899-)
Wald, George
Watson, James D. (1928-)
Weinbaum, Lina (Litinskaya)
Weinbaum, Sidney
Weisskopf, Victor Frederick (1908-2002)
Wheland, George Willard (1907-)
Wilkins, Maurice (1916-)
Williams, Roger John (1893-)
Wilson, E. Bright (Edgar Bright) (1908-)
Wrinch, Dorothy (1894-1976)
Yost, Don M. (1893-)
Zewail, Ahmed H.
Zuckerkandl, Emile

People, Places, and Topics

Academy of Sciences, U.S.S.R.
Acta Crystallographica
American Academy of Arts and Sciences
American Association for Cancer Research
American Cancer Society
American Chemical Society, Puget Sound and Oregon Sections
American Institute for Cancer Research
American Institute of Physics
American Medical Association
American Philosophical Society
Bertrand Russell Society
British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC)
Bronson Pharmaceuticals
Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists
California Institute of Technology
Cancer Research
Chemical and Engineering News
Chemical Reviews
Chemical Society
Columbia Broadcasting System, Inc.
Consumer Reports
Cornell University Press
Eastman Kodak Company
Faraday Society
Food and Drug Administration
Foundation for Nutritional Advancement
History of Science
Journal of Chemical Education
Journal of the American Chemical Society
Journal of the American Medical Association
Linus Pauling Institute of Science and Medicine
McGraw-Hill and Co.
Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
National Cancer Institute
National Institute of Health
New England Journal of Medicine
Nobel Prize Committee
Oregon Agricultural College
Oregon Multicultural Archives
Oregon State University
Orthomolecular Medical Society
Parke, Davis and Company
Physical Review and Physical Review Letters
Physics Today
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Scientific American
Smithsonian Institute
Soka Gakkai International
Solvay Congress
Sources for the History of Quantum Physics
Stanford University
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organizations (UNESCO)
University History
W.H. Freeman and Company

Box and Folder Listing

Series 1: Correspondence, 1919-2000

This section is comprised of letters received by Linus Pauling as well as carbon copies of letters sent by Pauling. The correspondence section as a whole has been arranged alphabetically and sub-sorted chronologically. Within this broader schema, the correspondence section is further subdivided into three additional classifications: those individuals who made a prominent impact on either the history of twentieth-century science or on Pauling's life and work, have received their own entries under the heading Individual Correspondence. Likewise, correspondence with important organizations and institutions has been filed under the heading Organizational Correspondence. Finally, bulk mailings and more secondary materials have been grouped into General Correspondence files.

A complete listing of materials held in Series 1, including folder and item-level descriptions, is available here.

Series 2: Publications, 1920-1998, undated

This section mainly consists of original reprints of Linus Pauling's 1,100+ publications. Included in the Pauling Publications series are bibliographic citations for all of his scientific papers, books, popular articles, printed letters to the editor, forewords, introductions and support notices. The OSU Special Collections gratefully acknowledges the assistance of Zelek S. Herman and Dorothy B. Munro whose bibliography, The Publications of Professor Linus Pauling, served as the blueprint for this, the revised and expanded compilation of Dr. Pauling's complete published works.

A complete listing of materials held in Series 2, including folder and item-level descriptions, is available here.

Series 3: Manuscripts and Typescripts of Articles, 1923-1995, undated

This section features hundreds of manuscripts and typescripts of articles -- many of which went unpublished -- that were written or co-written by Linus Pauling. Also included is correspondence relevant to the development and publication of these articles. In many instances, abstracts, galley proofs, figures, research notes and other background materials have been interfiled where appropriate.

A complete listing of materials held in Series 3, including folder and item-level descriptions, is available here.

Series 4: Manuscripts and Typescripts of Speeches, 1921-1994, undated

As with the Manuscripts and Typescripts of Articles series, this section is largely composed of manuscripts and typescripts of speeches written and delivered by Linus Pauling. Also included is correspondence relevant to the writing, delivery and/or publication of these speeches. Further materials illustrating the logistics of Pauling's travel to the location of a speech's delivery, including correspondence, itineraries and other notes, are included as well.

A complete listing of materials held in Series 4, including folder and item-level descriptions, is available here.

Series 5: Manuscripts and Typescripts of Books, 1930-1992

Manuscripts, typescripts and galley proofs of books written or co-written by Linus Pauling are the chief constituents of this section. Also included is correspondence relevant to the evolution and printing of Pauling's thirteen published books. In many instances, figures, artwork, research notes, publication contracts (both domestic and foreign), internal and external reviews and other background materials provide a fuller picture of the processes that informed each of Pauling's book projects. Special Collections also retains among its holdings several editions of each of Pauling's books, including numerous overseas translations. Finally, a great bulk of material is included concerning the handful of books that Pauling initiated but did not complete or publish.

A complete listing of materials held in Series 5, including folder and item-level descriptions, is available here.

Series 6: Research Notebooks, 1919-1994

Linus Pauling's forty-seven original research notebooks form the heart of this section. The content of each research notebook has been cataloged in great detail, on the item level, typically spanning over one-hundred pages per container. The notebooks themselves span the years 1919 to 1994 and include many of Pauling's laboratory calculations and experimental data, as well as numerous scientific conclusions, ideas for further research and some biographical musings. In addition, item-level listings of the papers, notes and ephemera that Pauling often interfiled into his laboratory notebooks can be found at the end of each applicable container listing.

A complete listing of materials held in Series 6, including folder and item-level descriptions, is available here.  In addition, Pauling's notebooks have also been digitized and are available to view online.

Note: Note: Subjects covered in the research notebooks typically span many pages. The listings may be the same but the pages have different information on them and the associated images are different.

Series 7: Newspaper Clippings, Magazine and Journal Articles, 1910-2002

This section boasts of over 3,000 newspaper clippings, magazine articles, journal articles, typescripts and press releases either focusing upon or mentioning Linus Pauling. The sheer volume of material in this section, both foreign and domestic, illustrates the degree to which Pauling was very much a public figure -- along with Albert Einstein and Robert Oppenheimer, among the most recognizable scientists of the twentieth century.

A complete listing of materials held in Series 7, including folder and item-level descriptions, is available here.

Series 8: Honors, Awards, Citations, Diplomas and Other Recognitions, 1914-2010, undated

The multitude of medals, citations, diplomas and other recognitions awarded to Linus Pauling are cataloged in this section. Included are the nearly fifty honorary doctorates received by Pauling during his lifetime. Prominent items include Pauling's two Nobel medals, the Lenin Peace Prize medal, the M.V. Lomonosov medal and the National Medal of Science. In addition, correspondence and other background materials related to the awarding of specific honors have been interfiled in tandem with the actual physical awards.

A complete listing of materials held in Series 8, including folder and item-level descriptions, is available here.  Images of all of Pauling's awards are also available online.

Series 9: Photographs and Images, 1873-1995, undated

This section -- the most frequently used of all the Pauling Papers -- is comprised of over 5,500 photographs, drawings and other images of Linus Pauling, his family and his colleagues. Historic images of both Linus and Ava Helen's extended family are available in this section, as are both professional and candid portraits of the Pauling family throughout the twentieth century. Special Collections holds both hard copy and high-resolution digital versions of the bulk of the photograph collection.

A complete listing of materials held in Series 9, including folder and item-level descriptions, is available here.

Series 10: Audio / Visual, 1946-2011, undated

This section consists of a variety of audio/visual materials related to Linus and Ava Helen Pauling and their work in science and peace. Audiocassette tapes, vinyl records, videotapes, Dictaphone belts, audio tape reels and film reels are among the media types held in the audio/visual collection. The content of these various recordings include commencement lectures, public speeches, radio appearances and taped interviews. In addition, Special Collections holds the original film reels used in producing the 1977 NOVA documentary, "Linus Pauling, Crusading Scientist."

A complete listing of materials held in Series 10, including folder and item-level descriptions, is available here.

Series 11: Science, 1923-1994

This section has been divided into fifteen thematic sub-sections, which, when taken as a whole, reflect the extraordinary breadth of Linus Pauling's scientific biography. Boxes in the Science section typically hold manuscripts, research notes, correspondence, figures, experimental data, non-Pauling reprints and other scientific research materials. Generally speaking, materials have been arranged and cataloged according to research topic. However, two sub-sections reflect the institutional architecture either supporting or directing Pauling's work during specific periods of his life. For example, the bulk of the collection's holdings concerning Pauling's relationship with the American Chemical Society have been cataloged under the rubric "Scientific, Research and Grant-Funding Institutions." A similar approach has been taken with much of Pauling's work sponsored by the Guggenheim Foundation, Rockefeller Foundation, Ford Foundation, etc.

Access to materials related to Vitamin C cancer therapy in Series 11 are restricted due to the presence of confidential information. All requests for access to this material should be directed to the University Archivist.

A complete listing of materials held in Series 11, including folder and item-level descriptions, is available here.

Series 12: Peace, 1945-1994

This section has been partitioned into eight thematic sub-sections that illustrate Linus Pauling's manifold interests in topics of peace and humanism. The Peace holdings include manuscripts and typescripts, correspondence, notes, meeting minutes, non-Pauling publications and other ephemera reflecting the numerous concerns addressed by the Paulings and the international peace movement from the mid-1940s to the mid-1990s. Prominent items include the three-volume bound Bomb-Test Petition to the United Nations, for which Pauling received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1963, as well as a sizeable trove of materials related to Pauling's membership in the Emergency Committee of Atomic Scientists, formed by Albert Einstein and Leo Szilard at the conclusion of World War II.

A complete listing of materials held in Series 12, including folder and item-level descriptions, is available here.

Series 13: Biographical, 1910-1996

Holdings in this vast section -- arranged both according to subject and format -- document a number of themes from Linus Pauling's remarkable, complex life. An eclectic array of manuscript and typescript materials, correspondence, notebooks, newspaper clippings, government documents, legal documents, tax documents and receipts have been sorted into sub-sections labeled Academia, Political Issues, Legal, Business & Financial, and Personal Materials & Family Correspondence. In addition, over 2,700 pages of loose-leaf scrapbooks compiled by the Paulings have been cataloged on the item level and reside in the Biographical section.

A complete listing of materials held in Series 13, including folder and item-level descriptions, is available here.

Series 14: Travel, 1932-1994

A very substantial minority of the Paulings' time was spent traveling around the world to participate in conferences, give speeches and attend meetings. Over the course of their fifty-eight year marriage, the Paulings visited every continent, save Antarctica, and enjoyed lengthy residential stays in Europe, trips to the Soviet Union and communist China, and extended tours of Australia and New Zealand. This section documents the incredible breadth of Linus and Ava Helen's travel through its collection of itineraries, transit and hotel receipts, maps, and assorted background materials.

A complete listing of materials held in Series 14, including folder and item-level descriptions, is available here.

Series 15: Ava Helen Pauling, 1927-2013

Manuscript and typescript leaves, correspondence, assorted biographical materials, publications and government documents related to the life and work of Ava Helen Pauling are the foundation of this section. Items of special interest include writings by Ava Helen Pauling on issues of peace, civil liberties and women's rights. The section also contains extensive genealogical data; correspondence and meeting minutes chronicling the work of prominent peace groups including the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, Women Strike for Peace and Federal Union; and other assorted personal materials documenting Ava Helen's activities both within and outside the Pauling family home.

A complete listing of materials held in Series 15, including folder and item-level descriptions, is available here.

Series 16: Personal Safe, 1912-1993

The four drawers of Linus Pauling's personal safe contained an astonishingly rich and diverse collection of items which have yielded a much fuller portrait of Pauling's life and activities. Drawer 1 held over seven-hundred letters between Linus and Ava Helen Pauling, most of them love letters. Drawers 2 and 3 contained a number of items that Pauling had deemed to be either sensitive or important, including communications with world-historical figures as varied as John F. Kennedy and Ho Chi Minh. Drawer 4 served as repository for the dozens of pocket notebooks that Pauling carried throughout his life, as well as scores of Dictaphone belts on which Pauling had recorded chapters of a proposed autobiography.

A complete listing of materials held in Series 16, including folder and item-level descriptions, is available here.

Series 17: Pauling Personal Library, 1806-1998

The 4,000+ volumes that form the personal library of Linus and Ava Helen Pauling are detailed in this section. Arranged according to author's last name, the books in the Personal Library bibliography are illustrative of the Paulings' many interests -- from pure science to sociological surveys to detective stories to crossword puzzles.

A complete listing of materials held in Series 17, including folder and item-level descriptions, is available here.

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