It's in the Blood! A Documentary History of Linus Pauling, Hemoglobin and Sickle Cell Anemia All Documents and Media  
Home | Search | Narrative | Linus Pauling Day-By-Day

All Documents and Media

"Molecular Disease Lectures"
 
"Molecular Disease Lectures" November 1970.
Delivered at the State University of New York. [Buffalo?] Produced by the American Chemical Society.

Biological Specificity Research at Caltech. (1:52)

Get the Flash Player to see this audio player.

Download Audio File (Mp3) File to Your Computer

Transcript

Linus Pauling: Well I think we have an understanding of the molecular basis of biological specificity. Why do people become allergic to strawberries, say, or to milk, or something like that? This is the same subject.

The antibodies are protein molecules which have a region which is complimentary in structure to the antigen. For example, the benzene arsonic acid, a group that Landsteiner was fond of working with. We were able to show that the antibody molecule, the atoms in the antibody molecule, fit around this group, the heptanic group, very closely to within about a quarter of an atomic diameter, on the average, and that they bring into juxtaposition groups that are complimentary to certain groups in the heptan.

For example, an electron pair donating- hydrogen bond-forming atom will come up close to a hydrogen atom attached to an electronegative atom, so that a hydrogen bond is formed. And a negative charge will be brought up in the neighborhood of a positive charge in the heptanic group, and so on, all contributing to the weak intermolecular forces that operate. Now it is the shape factor that’s responsible for the specificity.

We found that if antibodies were made against benzene arsonic acid, they would not combine with meta-chloral-benzene arsonic acid, that had a chlorine atom, 181 femtometers - I’m trying to learn to talk in the international system of units - 181 femtometers in diameter here, because the hole into which a hydrogen atom, 110 femtometers in radius would fit, is not big enough for the chlorine atom to get into. But if you made antibodies against the meta-chloral-benzene arsonic acid group, which have, the antibodies have a hole big enough for this chlorine atom, then the benzene arsonic acid will fit in, because the hydrogen atom is smaller and it can slip into the larger hole. That sort of thing. Very, very satisfying it was to me to feel that this puzzling phenomenon of species specificity of antibodies, antiserva, could be understood.

Clip

Creator: Linus Pauling
Associated: Karl Landsteiner
Clip ID: 1970v.9-specificity

Full Work

Creator: American Chemical Society
Associated: Linus Pauling

Date: November 1970
Genre: sound
ID: 1970v.9
Copyright: More Information

Previous Audio Clip 
   Itano, Singer and Wells' Work on Sickle Cell ...


Home | Search | Narrative | Linus Pauling Day-By-Day